## Science Exam

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# Science Exam

 accelerationthe rate at which velocity changes
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#### Definitions

acceleration the rate at which velocity changes
meter the basic SI unit of length
motion the state in which ones object's distance from another is changing
plate one of the major pieces that makes up Earths upper layer
reference point a place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion
SI Acronym for International System of Units
speed the distance an object travels in one unit of time
velocity speed in a given direction
air resistance the fluid friction experienced by objects falling through the air
balanced force equal forces acting on an object in opposite direction;
does not change object's motion
centripetal force a force that causes an object to move in a circle
fluid friction friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid
force a push or pull exerted on an object
free fall the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
friction the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other
gravity the force that pulls objects toward each other
inertia the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
law of conservation of momentum the rule that the total momentum of objects in an interaction does not change
mass the amount of matter in an object
momentum the product of of an objects mass and velocity
net force the overall force on an object when all individual forces acting on an object are added together
newton a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate one kg of mass at 1 meter/s/s
projectile an object that is thrown
rolling friction friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface
satellite an object that travels around another object in space
sliding friction friction that occurs when one surface slides over another
terminal velocity the maximum velocity a falling object can achieve
unbalanced force a nonzero net force' which changes an object's motion
weight the force of gravity on an object at the surface of a planet
Archimedes' Principle the rule that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Bernoulli's Principle the rule that a stream of fast-moving fluid exerts less pressure than the surrounding stream; ex: airplane
Pascal's Principle the rule that when force exerted is applied to a confined fluid, the increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
buoyant force the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object
density the mass of a substance contained in a unit of volume
fluid a substance that can easily change shape and move freely
hydraulic system a system that multiplies force by transmitting pressure from a small surface area through a confined fluid to a larger surface area
pascal a unit of pressure equal to one newton/s/s
pressure the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted
actual mechanical advantage the mechanical advantage that a machine provides in a real situation
compound machine a device that combines two or more simple machines
efficiency compares output work to input work and says how well a machine works; a percantage
fulcrum the fixed point around which a lever pivots
gears two or more wheels linked together by interlocking teeth
ideal mechanical advantage the mechanical advantage that a machine would have without friction
inclined plane a flat surface that has one end higher than the other ex: ramp
input force the force you exert on a machine, also effort force
joule a unit of work equal to one newton-meter
lever a rigid object that pivots around a fixed point
machine a device that changes the amount of force exerted or the direction in which force is exerted
mechanical advantage the number of times the force exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine
output force the force exerted on an object by a machine, also resistance force
pulley a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove; used to hoist objects
screw an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder to form a spiral
tendon a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
wedge an inclined plane that moves
wheel and axle two circular or cylindrical objects that are fastened together and rotate around a common axis
work force exerted on an object that causes it to move in the same direction
chemical energy potential energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
combustion the process of burning a fuel to produce thermal energy
elastic potential energy The energy of stretched or compressed objects
electrical energy the energy of moving electric charges
electromagnetic energy the energy of light and other forms of radiation; some electric properties some magnetic properties (hint hint)
energy the ability to do work or cause change
energy conversion the process of changing energy from one form to another
fossil fuel the materials such as coal that are burned to release their chemical energy; dead plants and animals
generator electrical motors made to run backwards so it will produce electricity
gravitational potential energy potential energy that depends on the height of an object
kinetic energy the energy an object has due to its motion
law of conservation of energy the law that states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
mechanical energy kinetic or potential energy associated with the motion or position of an object
nuclear energy the potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
pascal a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter
potential energy Energy that is stored and held in readiness
power the rate at which work is done
thermal energy the total energy of a particle in a substance or material
turbine a large wheel that rotates and provides mechanical energy to a generator
watt a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second
Reference point To determine if an object is moving, use its distance from a __________. If it is changing, the object is in motion.
The object must be stationary. In order for an object to be considered a reference point, what must be true?
by moving the decimal to the left or right How do you convert from one metric unit to another?
1 What does a conversion factor fraction always equal?
m/s , cm/s, or km/hr the SI unit of speed is....
(all 3 of them)
constant speed when distance is plotted on a graph: what does a straight line represent? (not slanted)
speed when distance is plotted on a graph: what does the slope of the line represent?
no motion when distance is plotted on a graph: what does a horizontal line represent?
speed and direction what are 2 components of velocity?
increasing speed, decreasing speed, and changing direction what are 3 things that acceleration refers to?
m/s/s the SI unit of acceleration is
constant speed when speed is plotted on a graph: what does a slanted STRAIGHT line represent?
The distance traveled varies each second. when speed is plotted on a graph: what does a curved line represent?
strength and direction what 2 components are used to describe force?
change in motion what will an unbalanced force acting on an objects cause?
no will balanced forces change an objects motion?
Newton's first law an object at rest will remain in rest, but an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted apawn by an unbalanced force
Kilogram the SI unit of mass is the
Mass inertia depends on
Newton's second law Law that states net force is = to its mass x acceleration
Newton SI unit for force is the
it increases acceleration what does increasing force do to acceleration?
decreases acceleration what does increasing mass do to acceleration?
decreases acceleration and speed how does friction affect motion?
It increases If two surfaces involved are rougher and they push harder, what happens to friction?
the objects surface area what does air resistance depend on?
Law of universal gravitation The law that states gravity acts between all objects
mass and velocity what does strength of gravity depend on?
Action and reaction forces one produces the force and one creates an equal and opposite force on the first object
Newton's third law for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction
when they work in the same direction when can forces work on the same object?
mass and velocity what are the 2 components of momentum?
kg× m/s the SI unit for momentum is
(use "times" for multiplication or / for division)
velocity what determines the direction of momentum?
Newton's third law (the gasses explode with a huge downward force exerts an equal but opposite force against the gasses expelled and the gasses in the air) What law of motion applies to a rockets lift-off?
force causes pressure how are force and pressure related?
gas and liquid what are 2 types of fluid?
the individual molecules create pressure when they collide how do fluids exert pressure on a surface?
as it increases, pressure decreases how does elevation effect air pressure?
as it increases, pressure increases how does depth affect water pressure?
Pressure _____ will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid when it is applied to a confined fluid.
multiply it what do hydraulic systems do to a force?
Pascal's A hydraulics system is an example of whose principle?
up buoyant force acts in what direction?
buoyant force acts against gravity why are you lighter in water?
The submerged object's volume. What determines the amount of water displaced when an object is dropped into a fluid?
Density what determines if an object floats or sinks?
its dencity is less than water why does a boat float?
move What does a fluid do to have less pressure?
Less A plane can fly because the curved wing causes fluid to move faster above the wing, thus there is ______ (more or less) pressure ABOVE the wing and push it upward
Law of conservation of energy in any process, energy is not lost (energy is neither created nor destroyed)
Albert Einstein What scientist stated that the energy can be created?
mass and velocity what 2 things affect kinetic energy?
electromagnetic energy what energy comes from the sun?
Kinetic energy Energy of motion
Energy conversion where energy is transferred from one kind of energy to another
mechanical to thermal what is the energy conversion when you rub your hands together?
electrical to electromagnetic what is the energy conversion when you turn on a lightbulb?
at its highest point right before falling down When a ball is thrown up in the air, when does it reach maximum potential energy?
gravitational potential energy what potential energy depends on height?
it is quadrupled what happens to kinetic energy when its velocity is doubled?
work is the transfer of energy what is the relationship between work and energy?
Yes when an object moves in the direction of the force, is work done?
joule the SI unit of work is the
makes it easier what does a machine do to your work?
greater than 1 multiplying force MA is
less than 1 multiplying distance MA is
= to 1 changing direction MA is
wedge Two inclined planes put together; a simple machine
wedge ex:ax
screw ex:jar lid
lever ex:crow bar
wheel and axle ex:doornob
pulley ex:block and tackle
multiplies force how does an inclined plane make work easier?
the number of supporting strands of rope IMA of a Pulley=
The distance between threads The IMA of a screw=
(how to find it)
length÷thickness IMA of a wedge=
First Class Lever multiply force or distance; always changes direction
2nd class lever Multiplies force
3rd class lever Multiplies distance
1st Class fulcrum in middle
2nd Class output in middle
3rd Class input in middle
move the fulcrum closer to the output force how can you increace the IMA of a 1st class lever?
Joints _____ are examples of fulcrums in our bodies.
Teeth how does the human body use wedges?
air A boat is able to float because they fill the gigantic hull with _____ which is less dense than the water.
distance÷time speed=
total distance/total time average speed=
speed × time distance=
(final velocity - initial velocity) ÷time acceleration=
mass × acceleration force=
mass × 9.8 m/s² weight=
mass × velocity momentum=
force ÷ area pressure=
mass ÷ volume density=
force × distance work=
output force ÷ input force mechanical advantage=
(output work÷input work) × 100% efficiency=
length of incline ÷ height of incline advantage of an inclined plane=
distance from fulcrum to input force ÷ distance from fulcrum to output force advantage of a lever=
(mass × velocity²) ÷ 2 kinetic energy=
weight × height GPE=
mass × 9.8m/s² × height GPE=
work ÷ time power=
(force × distance) ÷ time power=

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