first countries to industrialize
northern european countries: Germany, France Belgium, Britain
why did southern europe not industrialize?
geograph inadequate for industry (SPain, Italy)
(lack of harbors, unity, resources)
1807 Belgium Factories
New England industrialized .....
silimar conditions to northern europe/ Britain
Samuel S smuggled in machine designs
New products/ technologies
assembly line, interchangeable parts, the dynamo engine, light bulb, automobile, rail roads, canals, plane, steam ships, vacinations, telephone, morse code, telegraph, radio
created dynamite- thought it would bring about world peace ---- "My factories make peace, the day when entire arms can annihilate each other there will be peace" who in their right mind would fight when the enemy could blow them up
set up the Nobel Prize using own personal wealth (valued Peace) chemistry, physics, medicine, peace, lit
led to electric street lights, better lit streets in cities--- crime goes down
Carnegie and Rockefeller
had monopolies (C)-- steel (R) --- Oil
harsh towards workers because they had started ou tsmall too and they had worked their way up to "CAptains" or "Robber BArons"
well planned cities
cleaner/ more sanitary
wider roads= troops could move easily through in case of revolution
indoor plumbing -- sewage
tenements with brick (better living conditions for workers)
public buildings, and skyscrapers
louis pasteur discovered germs
hospital care improved-- joseph Lister
Reforms help WOrking class
more jobs, happier workers, entertainment enjoy life
- higher wages, shorter hours, regulized safety conditions, workmans comp, less child labor, pension, disability, labor unions legalized
first called "mutual aid societies"
stopped exploitation of workers
vote universal for men
in britain in 1900
in britain in 1830s
to protect voters
to keep officials from bribing their way into office
at home: many middle class women stayed at home becasue it was a sign of success---supervise servants, raise kids, sew, religious charity work
"cult of domesticity"
Victorian Values--- took on aristocratic airs
rich american girls married poorer englishmen with titles to actually become aristocrats
women bought items rather than making them
college became more accessible
higher education was possible for more poeple
needed education to understand new technology
educated/ understand so they can vote more wisely
Men justified witholding vote from women ....
"women to fickle/flighty/emotional to vote wisely"
"politics to messy for dainty women"
"Need to be protected by men"
WOmen can vote in US___________.
women proved they could handle "mens work"
survival of the fittest
some races superior?
used as excuse to dominated others/spread racism
idea of "We are superior to you"
abstain from alcohol
leads to prohibition in USA
Led by middle class women
have the ability to move you emotionally
imagination, freedom, nature(Lot of landscapes)
reaction to age of Reason ( break away from tht)
out of step with society
"Liberty leading the People"
show the world at it is
paintings of workers, real life scenes, harsh life in cities
oliver twist, a christmas carol ~ Charles Dickens
Les Miserables ~ Victor Hugo
the Gross Clinic --- autopsy ~(1875)~ Thomas Eakins
Stone Breakers--- workers on country road ~Courbet
response to realism and camera (who wanted to paint what could be accomplished easily with a camera)
unusual angles--- copying Japanese Art
Fleeting glimse of things (like you would see on a train --new experience)
had bright, joyful subjects (usu. middle class enjoying life)
"did their own thing"
usu showed emotion/feeling of the people
not as light as impressionism
kind of crazy ---- cut off his ear
fav color= yellow ~ symbolizes friendship, generosity, hope