Which researchers found that electrically stimulating certain areas in the brain and brainstem produced cortical activation?
Moruzzi and Magoun
Arousal states appear to be determined by in interaction about the ___________, __________, _________ and ___________.
brainstem, hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain
Dampening of arousal systems with concomitant active inhibition by ______________ systems produces sleep.
Areas maintaining wakefulness include?
oral pontine reticular formation,
midbrain central tegmentum,
Where are sleep promoting areas located?
dorsolateral medullary reticular formation,
anterior hypothalamic preoptic region
What is the "sleep modulating center", with both sleep and waking active sites?
Magnocellular nucleus basalis of Meynert located in the forebrain
The Magnocellular nucleus basalis of Meynert located in the forebrain has projections to ___________ and ______________.
neocortex, midbrain reticular formation
What type of projections are projections from the Magnocellular nucleus basalis of Meynert?
Sleep is a behavioral state that differs from wakefulness by a readily reversible loss of ______________________.
reactivity to event's in one's environment
Sleep is divided into stages based on?
Electrical stimulation of _____________________ produces slow wave sleep.
nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS)
Lesions in the nucleus tractus solitarius produces _________________.
cortical desynchronization (waking pattern of EEG)
NTS appears to inhibit more rostrally situated neurons in the ____________________ system.
ascending reticular activating
Direct connections between NTS and major areas of the ____________ system exist.
limbic (anterior thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala)
What chemical can produce insomnia by blocking production of serotonin?
Parachlorophenylalanine (a trytophan hydroxylase inhibitor)
Slow wave sleep can be restored in PCPA induced insomnia by administration of _______________.
How does serotonin appear to modulate sleep?
its effect on other hyponogenic factors in the anterior hypothalamus and suprachiasmatic nucleus
Melatonin is synthesized and released by the pineal gland through ___________ activation from the ______________ tract.
________________________ appears to inhibit waking areas in the rostral midbrain and mesopontine reticular core.
Preoptic nucleus of ant. Hypothalamus
Preoptic nucleus of ant. Hypothalamus appears to inhibit waking areas in the _______________ and ___________________________.
rostral midbrain, mesopontine reticular core
The __________________ may also promote sleep by inhibiting the waking area in the posterior hypothalamus.
What factors have hynogenic effects by acting on the anterior hypothalamus.
triazolam, 5HTP, muramyl peptides, PGD2
Sleep spindles are rhythmic cortical waveforms generated by oscillatory activity in ______________ of the thalamus.
Slow waves are generated in ________________ circuits arising in _______________.
neocortical, all cortical layers
An increase in GABAergic anterior hypothalamic preoptic and basal forebrain neurons is associated with _______ sleep.
What phasic events are associated with PGO spikes?
rapid eye movements, changes in respiration, heart rate, muscle twitches, and dreaming
Where do PGO spikes originate from?
REM-ON cells in medial pontine reticular formation and adjacent reticular tegmental nucleus
REM-OFF cells are represented by what cells? (which become silent during REM)
noradrenergic cells of locus ceruleus
What is the progressive decrease in muscle tone in REM sleep associated with?
hyperpolarization of moter neurons
What happens in REM behavior disorder?
persistant muscular tone during REM, bursts of excessive limb and body movements,
There is a reduction in body and brain temperature at the onset of sleep. What change is this associated with?
At the onset of sleep, there is reduced thermosensitivity of ______________.
hypothalamic preoptic nucleus
What serves as an endogenous clock influencing both sleep and body temp in a closely coupled fashion?
Who is more likely to be obese, those who sleep more than 9 hours or those who sleep less than 6 hours?
less than 6 hours
What are precipitating causes of seizure?
strong emotional stimuli, alkolosis (hyperventilation), drugs, fever, loud noises/flashing lights
Which type of seizure is associated with Aura, Tonic Phase, Tonic-clonic phase and Post-ictal phase?
What type of seizure is Focal- and symptoms depend on the area of the brain that is involved?
What is the tonic-clonic phase of a grand mal seizure?
strong muscle contraction and convulsions, which are over within minutes
What is the Post-ictal phase of a grand mal seizure?
return to conciousness, may be associated with confusion, stupor, slurred speech, weakness
To determine sensory ep, EEG is recorded during?
repetitive natural stimulation (tap on skin or flash of light)
What are some of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior
What are some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
alogoria, flat affect, anhedonia, avolition, attentional impairment
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with what area?
mesolimbic- ventral tegmental area to many areas of limbic system (dopaminergic)
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with what area?
mesocortical- ventral tegmental area to neocortex
What are some anatomical abnormalities associated with schizophrenia?
enlargement of ventricles and prominent sulci due to abnormal brain development
What condition is characterized by pervasive unpleasant mood that is present most of the day, along with at least three other symptoms (such as decreased sex drive, guilt, thoughts about dying/suicide, etc)?
The incidence of suicide in biologic relatives of depressed adoptees is _________ than biologic relatives of normal adoptees.
6-10 times higher
What are some examples of drugs for the treatment of depression?
MAO inhibitors, tricyclic, specific serotonin, uptake blockers, lithium salts
MAO inhibitors have a lag time of __________, and it takes __________ for full effect.
lag- 1 to 3 weeks
full effect- 4-6 weeks
Trycyclic compounds have a lag time of __________, and it takes __________ for full effect.
lag- 1 to 3 weeks
full effect- 4-6 weeks
What are the subjective manifestations of anxiety?
heightened sense of awareness, deep fear of impending disaster and death
How do drugs for the treatment of anxiety work?
enhance activity of GABA receptor (opens Cl- channel, increasing Cl- influx, hyperpolarizing cell)
What are some general changes on CT or MRI associated with Alzheimer's Disease?
thining of cortical gyri, enlarged ventricles
What are the neuronal features of Alzheimers?
extracellular plaques containing amyloid, neurofibrillary tangles
Most substances that must cross the BBB are not _______ soluble and use specific carrier mediated transport systems.
Where in the brain is there no BBB?
posterior pituitary and circumventricular organs (secretory areas)
Leaky areas of the brain (with no BBB) are isolated from the rest of the brain by ___________________ which prevent free exchange with CSF.
specialized ependymal cells (tancytes)
How is leucine and valine transported across the BBB?
energy and Na dependent L system (for large neutral AA with branched or ring side chains)
How is alanine and serine transported across the BBB?
Energy and Na dependent A system (for neutral AA with short linear or polar sidechains) OR ACS system
How is cysteine transported across the BBB?
ACS system (also transports alanine and serine along with A system)
Which system of transporting amino acids across the BBB may limit accumulation of -NT glycine in cord and +NT glutamate in the brain?
What enzyme detoxifies glutathione-bound compounds and vasoactive leukotrienes?
CSF has less __________________________ (secretory products) than plasma.
less protein, glucose, K+, Ca++, Mg++, pH
How is the constant external environment for neurons and glia maintained?
CSF communicates with brain ISF
What are the functions of CSF?
Communicates with brain ISF, removal of potentially harmful brain metabolites, mechanical cushion, reduces weight of brain, transport of peptides to distant sites, pH affects both ventilation and blood flow
What serves as the one-way valve to allow CSF to flow into the blood and not allow blood to flow into the CSF?
What usually causes noncommunicating hydrocephalus?
blockage of the aqueduct of Sylvius from a congenital defect or tumor
What usually causes communicating hydrocephalus?
blockage of fluid flow into subarachnoid space around basal regions of the brain or blockage of arcachnoidal villi