Pharmacology

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Pharmacology

study of drugs and their actions on living organisms

Drugs

chemical substances that have an effect on living organisms

Medicines

therapeutic drugs, used to prevent or treat diseases

Physiotherapy

treatment with natural physical forces such as water, light, and heat

Psychological therapy

identification of stressors and methods to reduce or eliminate stress and/or the use of drugs

generic name

first letter of name is not capitalized

official name

name of drug that is listed by U.S. Food and Drug Administration

trademark/brand/proprietary name

first letter is capitalized

U.S. Pharmacopiea/National Formulary

provides standards for identity,quality,strength, and purity of substances used in healthcare

Controlled Substances Act (1970)

divided potentially addictive drugs into five schedules

Schedule I

high abuse potential/no medical use; Ex: LSD, heroin,marijuana,mescaline,methaqualone,peyote,STP,hashish,psilocybin

Schedule II

high abuse potential/accepted medical use/no refills/phone orders in emergencies;Ex:Amphetamines,cocaine,codeine,dronabinol,methadone,methylphenidate,pentobarbital,Opium(morphine),meperidine,short-acting barbiturates(secobarbital)

Schedule III

less abuse than I & II/possible psychological dependence;Ex:Benzphetamine,butabarital,mixtures of codeine,Loratab,Fiorinal

Schedule IV

low abuse potential/phone orders permitted;Ex:Librium(chlordiazepoxide),Valium(diazepam),Chloral Hydrate,Darvon(propoxyphene),phenobarbital,flurazepam,temazepam

Schedule V

low abuse potential/may not need prescription;Ex:Lomotil,Robitussin A-C

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)

moved burden of proof from government to manufacturer/FDA regulates

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Durham-Humphrey Amendment 1952)

restricted the refilling of perscriptions

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Kefauver-Harris Amendment 1962)

product has to be safe and effective/came after Thalidomide (drug used for pregnant woman's pain) tragedy

Harrison Narcotic Act (1914)

regulated narcotic sales (before act, could buy w/o prescription)

Purity

state of being free of contamination

Bioavailability

rate and extent to which an active drug enters general circulation

Potency

strength

Efficacy

ability to produce a desired effect

Safety

measures to prevent harm

Toxicity

extent, quality, or degree of being poisonous

Four stages of drug development

1)preclinical/stage where FDA has 30 days to determine if safe/only 20% go to clinical stage 2)clinical 3)New Drug Application (NDA) review 4)postmarking surveillance

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