the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels
blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles
the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are relaxing
difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
mean arterial pressure
Diastolic + 1/3 pulse pressure
a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, can also decrease the blood supply to the brain and cause a decrease in mental abilities
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
abnormally low blood pressure
Pressure within a vessel that resists the flow of blood such as plaque buildup or vasoconstriction
decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow
normal flow through blood vessels
Automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any given point in time
Chemicals that are secreted by local cells in the blood or endothelium to cause dialation/vasomotion
blood supply cut off then restored
the formation of new blood vessels
In the medulla oblongata. Regulates the diameter of blood vessels.
An autonomic, negative feedback response to changes in blood pressure detected by carotid sinuses:
An autonomic response to changes in blood chemistry, especially pH and concentrations of O2 and CO2.
medullary ischemic reflex
acts during emergency situation when blood flow to the medulla is decreased; causes marked arteriole and venous constriction
a potent vasopressor agent formed from angiotensin I
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
released by cardiac muscle cells in response to abnormal stretching of the heart walls due to elevated blood pressure or increased blood volume;
reduces thirst and blocks release of ADH/Aldosterone;
resulting diuresis lowers both blood pressure and plasma volume
accelerates water absoption from urine in the kidney tubules into the blood, thereby decreasing urine secretion
epinephrine and norepinephrine
increase blood glucose; increase rate of metabolism; constrict certain blood vessels
Movement of substances between blood and interstitial fluid
Pressure exerted by a volume of fluid against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that encloses the fluid.
colloid osmotic pressure
pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure
a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in blood plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system
net filtration pressure
Opposing forces of COP and Hydrostatic pressure produces this. Arterial end of capillary. NFP at arterial end = 13 out.
net reabsorption pressure
Causes capillaries to reabsorb fluid at venous end of capillary. NRP at venous end = 7 in.
When water carries with it a variety of dissolved solutes through the epithelium, it is called:
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
3 fundamental causes of edema
increased capillary filtration/reduced capillary reabsorption/obstructed lymphatic drainage
central venous pressure
venous blood pressure within the right atrium that influences the pressure in the large peripheral veins.
5 mechanisms of Venous Return
Pressure Gradient/Gravity/Skeletal Muscle Pump/Thoracic Pump/Cardiac Suction
failure of circulatory system to deliver 02 to tissue adequately
low venous return shock
circulatory shock in which cardiac output is low because two little blood is returning to the heart
The Principle forms of LVR shock
Hypovolemic shock/Obstructed Venous return shock/Venous Pooling
type of shock common in cases of damage to the brain or spinal cord that results in vasodilation and relative hypovolemia
a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure
When the patient is developing shock but the body is still able to maintain perfusion.
Occurs when the body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. Late signs such as decreasing blood pressure become evident.
Transient Ischemic Attacks
These are mini-strokes and frequently precede a stroke. It is a temporary or transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by temporary impairment of blood flow to the brain.
Damage to brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke
the artery that carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries
carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs
deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium