HumanGeography Religion Vocaba

30 terms by willy299

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RELIGION KEY TERMS

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Animism

Belief that inanimate objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and life. Common in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, Native American religions are fundamentally animistic, and even Shintoism is highly animistic.

Buddhism

The third of the world's major universalizing religions. It has over 360 million adherents especially in China and Southeast Asia. Prince Siddartha (Buddha) had a vision while sitting under the Bodhi (awakening) tree, then founded Buddhism in the 6th c. BCE (in eastern India) against the caste system; branched off from Hinduism. Buddhists believe all life is dukkha (nothing permanent); seek to achieve nirvana (enlightenment); believe in no named deity, but do believe in god; cultural landscape contains statues of Buddha, pagodas & shrines (often bell-shaped to protect burial mounds).

Christianity

is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament of the Bible. It is the most popular religion in the world (>1.3 billion); three denominations (branches) - orthodox (oldest), catholic (largest with the richest bureaucracy of all religions), protestant (newest); landscape contains churches and cathedrals; use the most land for their dead (cemeteries).

Confucianism

Developed by earlier Chinese man Confucius, it's a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. This is important to HG because it has affected Chinese Civilizations tremendously.

Diaspora

The dispersion of people from their original homeland

Ethnic religion

A religion with a rather concentrated distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location where its adherents are located; most religions start off as an ethnic religion.

Enclave/exclave

Enclave is an area belonging to another country but surrounded by one other country / Exclave is a part of one country not attached to the rest of itself

Fundamentalism

literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent level.

Feng Shui

literally means "wind water"; Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, cities. Structures and objects are positioned in a way (often in line with the compass lines) to channel flows of energy in favorable ways. It is not an official religion.

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca

Hinduism

Created in India, approximately 4,000 years ago with >750 million followers today. Unlike other religions, no single founder or text; heaven isn't always the ultimate goal in life. Third largest in world religion behind Christianity and Islam. Religion is inseparable from life; god (Brahman, universal soul) may be in many forms (polytheistic); karma (what goes around comes around; transferability of the soul) and reincarnation are cornerstones; caste system locks people into class levels

Interfaith/intrafaith boundaries

the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. / describes the boundaries within a major religion

Islam

a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad in the Qu'ran, a key religious figure in the 6th c. CE. It is the second largest religion in the world (fastest growing due to birth rates), and has impacted the world greatly, especially boundaries (e.g., North Africa, "Middle East"). Half of the world's 1.1 billion Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. The two major branches are Sunni and Shiah (Shiites believe in the infallibility of imams; are concentrated mostly in Iran and eastern Iraq)

Jainism

A religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life.

Judaism

It is the religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths. This is important to HG because many other religions have been based off it.

Monotheism/polytheism

Monotheism this is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief in many gods. This affects HG because many religions spread throughout the world fall under these two categories.

Mormonism

a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah.

Universalizing religion, proselytic religion

a religion in which the followers attempt to appeal to all people, and actively seek concerts wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this - they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. .

Reincarnation

The rebirth a soul in a new body

Sacred space

place or space people infuse with religious meaning

Secularism

This is the belief that humans should be based on facts and not religious beliefs. This is important to HG because this has caused conflicts in a lot of different places including politics.

Shamanism

This is the range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people.

Sh'aria law

is the system of Islamic law (based on interpretation of the Qu'ran)

Shintoism

It is said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion, combining elements of Buddhism and local religions (a syncretic religion). It involves the worship of kami (a god). It was very popular prior to WWII, but has lost much of its dominance and importance in Japanese culture.

Sikhism

is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India and locate primarily between India and Pakistan today. The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū.

Syncretic religion

separate religions that combine into a new religion; often borrow from the pat and the present.

Taoism

religion founded by Lao-Tsu and based on his book titles "Book of the Way"; focused on proper political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.

Theocracy

a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)

Zoroastrianism

system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster; set forth in the Zend-Avesta; based on concept of struggle between light (good) and dark (evil)

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