Ch. 13- The Respiratory System

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What are the 2 systems responsible for supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide?

Respiratory System and Cardiovascular System

The respiratory system involves a gas exchange between _________ and ____________.

blood and the external enviroment

The cardiovascular system involves a gas exchange between _________ and ____________.

the lungs and tissue cells

The respiratory system includes:

the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi (and their smaller branches), lungs (containing terminal air sacs called alveoli)

What is the only structure that is NOT a conducting passageway that allow air to reach lungs?

Alveoli

The only externally visible respiratory organ

nose

The nostrils are a.k.a:

the external nares

The interior of the nose

nasal cavity

midline division of nasal cavity

nasal septum

greatly increases the surface area of the mucosa exposed to air

nasal conchae

Separates nasal cavity from oral cavity

palate

where palate is supported by bone

hard palate

unsupported posterior part of palate (no bone)

soft palate

surrounds the nasal cavity

paranasal sinuses

lightens the skull and acts as resonance chambers for speech

paranasal sinuses

inflammation of the nasal mucosa

rhinitis

produces excessive mucus and results in nasal congestion and postnasal drip

rhinitis

inflammation of the sinuses

sinusitis

This occurs when the passageways connecting the sinuses to the nasal cavity are blocked and air in sinus cavities is absorbed (creating a partial vacuum).

sinus headache

muscular passageway that is common for food and air

pharynx

drain the middle ear

auditory tubes

lymphatic tissue found in pharynx

tonsils

Also known as the voice box

larynx

routes air and food into their proper channels, also controls speech

larynx

forms the Adam's Apple

Thyroid Cartilage

protects superior opening of the larynx

Epiglottis

What does the larynx do when we swallow?

Rises and epiglottis tips, forming a lid over the opening of the larynx and thus routing the food into the esophagus.

If food entered the larynx, a _________ _________is triggered.

cough reflex

The adams apple is actually________ __________.

Thyroid Cartilage

The cell sin the alveoli that pick up bacteria and other debris.

dust cells or macrophages

What is used to measure respiratory capacities?

spirometer

What are the different lung capacities?

1) Tidal Volume
2) Inspiratory Reserve Volume
3) Expiratory Reserve Volume
4) Residual Volume

normal breathing in and out

tidal volume

amount of air that can be inhaled past the tidal volume amount

inspiratory reserve volume

amount of air that can be exhaled past the tidal volume amount

expiratory reserve volume

the air that is always in the lungs and cannot be voluntarily expelled

residual volume

separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

the palate

What is the function of the epiglottis?

protects the superior opening of the larynx by helping route food and liquids into the esophagus rather than the larynx

Where is cilia found?

In the trachea

What type of cells make up the walls of alveoli?

Squamous Epithelial Cells

What do squamous epithelial cells produce?

Surfactant

What does surfactant do?

Creates surface tension to keep the alveoli open

Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by what process?

Diffusion

Internal Respiration is a function of the __________ system.

cardiovascular system

External Respiration is a function of the _________ system.

respiratory system

What are the 3 types of lung cancer?

1) Squamous Cell Carcinoma
2) Adenocarcinoma
3) Small Cell Carcinoma

trouble breathing, fluid buildup in the chest, sweat glands have an extremely salty perspiration

cystic fibrosis

cough up blood

squamous cell carcinoma

trouble exhaling

emphysema

mucosa of the lower respiratory passages is severely inflamed and an excess amount of mucus is produced

chronic bronchitis

releasing air to clear the lower respiratory tract

coughing

spasms of the diaphragm

hiccuping

releasing air to clear the upper respiratory tract

sneezing

inspiration followed by short exhales

crying or laughing

surgical opening int he trachea that provides an alternate route for air into the lungs

tracheostomy

inflammation of the nasal cavity

rhinitis

inflammation of the sinus cavity

sinusitis

What are the 4 events of respiration?

1) Pulmonary Ventilation (respiration)
2) External Respiration (respiration)
3) Respiratory Gas Transport (cardiovascular)
4) Internal Respiration (cardiovascular)

Where in the brain is respiration controlled?

The pons and medulla of the brain

normal breathing rate is controlled by:

the medulla

alters the breathing rate:

pons

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