Psychology: Chapter 7 Vocab

43 terms by Ella00

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Primary Reinforcement

Something necessary for psychological/physical survival that is used as a reward

Discrimination Learning

Learning to tell the difference between one event or object and another; the reverse of generalization

Operant Conditioning

Conditioning that results from one's action and the consequences they cause

Cognitive Learning

A way of learning based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge

Latent Learning

Learning that isn't obvious

Stimulus

Anything that elicits a response

Extinction

The gradual loss of an association over time

Punishment

The process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences

Continuous Reinforcement

Each time a behavior occurs, reinforcement is given

Response

A reaction to a stimulus

Reinforcement

Something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response

Social Learning

All learning which occurs in a social situation

Shaping

The process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations of it

Variable Ratio

Reinforcement occurs after a desired behavior occurs, but a different number of the desired acts is required each time

Reinforcement Value

The desirability of a specific reward to an individual

Unconditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that automatically elicits a response

Schedules of Reinforcement

Different methods of reinforcing

Fixed Ratio

Reinforcement occurs after the desired act is performed a specific number of times

Stimulus Generalization

A response spread from one specific to other stimuli that resembles the original

Secondary Reinforcement

Anything that comes to represent a primary re-enforcer, such as money bringing food

Conditioned Response

A response to a stimulus that is brought about by repeated exposure

Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus

Positive Reinforcement

Strengthening the tendency to repeat a response by following it with the addition of something pleasant

Generalization

A behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one

Unconditioned Response

An automatic response to a particular natural stimulus

Conditioned Stimulus

A previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus

Variable Interval

Reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time if a desired act occurs

Fixed Interval

A reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed if the desired act occurs

Spontaneous Recovery

A previously extinct response begins to reoccur

Expectancies

A person's beliefs about how well he or she will be able to do something

Conditioning

Making an association between two events by repeated exposure

Chaining

Reinforcing the connection between different parts of a sequence

Learning

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

Pavlov

Psychologist associated with Classical Conditioning who did an experiment with dogs

Mary Cover Jones

Psychologist who helped remove "Little Peter's" fear

Watson

Psychologist associated with Classical Conditioning who did an experiment called "Little Albert"

B.F. Skinner

Psychologist associated with Operant Conditioning who developed a "___ box" for rats and pigeons

Partial Reinforcement Schedules

Various ways to reinforce where reinforcement is not given each time

Bandura

Psychologist associated with Social Learning who felt others missed the individual and that rationalization can occur; THEORY OF MODELING

Observational Learning

Watch and decide what to imitate (es. child and parent)

E.C. Tolman

Psychologist associated with the Cognitive Approach whose theory proved the idea of STRATEGIES

Strategies

Creating techniques for solving problems

Cognitive Maps

Internal representations of an area

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