Basic Brain Structure (Parts and Functions)

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The basic parts of the structure of the brain and the functions of these parts.

Hypothalamus

Involved in regulation of emotions and bodily functions such as hunger, thirst, growth, pleasure/pain and body temperature. Connects the nervous system with the endocrine system.

Pons

Regulates sleep, arousal, breathing, and coordinates some muscle movements.

Medulla Oblongata

Regulates your life support systems, such as your heart rate, blood pressure and breathing.

Cerebellum

Coordinates movement, involved in speech, language, learning, and memory.

Corpus Callosum

A bridge of 100 millions nerve fibres that link the two cerebral hemispheres.

Cerebral Cortex

(Surface of cerebrum) Your thinking brain; The largest part of the brain, made up of the two hemispheres.

Forebrain

Includes Cerebrum, Cerebral Cortex, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus.

Hindbrain

Takes up about 2% of the brains volume. Continuation of the spinal cord, it consists of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and pons.

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Tiny brain structures made up of about 20,000 neurons located in the hypothalamus. It is a biological clock controlling the cardiac rythm throughout a 24 hour period.

Limbic System

Involved in memory, controlling emotions, decision making, motivation, and learning.

Reticular Formation

A network of fibres and cell bodies in the central core of the brainstem and extending through the hindbrain and midbrain. It can be considered as a network of neurons that open and close to de/in crease the amount of imformation that gets in/out of the brain.

Brainstem

Tiny Structure that relays information between the body and brain.

Hippocampus

Area of the brainstem able to transfer imformation between short and long term memory.

Amygdala

Emotional centre of the brain, Processes primal feelings such as fear or rage. Also involved in emotional memories.

Thalamus

Part of the brain at the top of the brainstem. Passes sensory information between key areas in the brain for processing.

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