Art History One, Chapters 6 and 7 terms and images

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Emperor Xuan and Attendants
Tang Dynasty
YAN LIBEN

Sixth Chan Patriarch Chopping Bamboo
Song Dynasty
LIANG KAI
("chan" enlightenment through meditation and self)

trefoils

a cloverlike ornament or symbol with stylized leaves in groups of three

boss

a circular knobb

yoga

a method for controlling the body and relaxing the mind used in later indian religions to yoke, or unite, the practitioner to the divine

sanskrit

an ancient Indic language of India, in which the hindu scriptures and classical Indian epic poems are written and from which many northern indian languages are derived

vedas

sanscrit, "knowledge"
(sing. = one of) four second millenium bce south asian compilations of religious learning

upanishads

south asian religious texts of ca. 800-500 bce that introduced the concepts of samsara, karma, and moksha

samsara

in hindu belief, the rebirth of soul into a succession of lives

karma

in vedic religions, the ethical consequences of a person's life, which determine his or her fate

moksha/nirvana

in buddhism and hinduism- a blissful state brought about by absorpton of the individual soul or consciousness into the supreme spirit

asceticism

self-discipline and self-denial

chakra

the buddha's wheel, set in motion at sarnath

dharma

in buddhism, moral law based on the buddha's teaching

bodhisattvas

in buddhist thought- a potential buddha who chooses not to achieve enlightenment in order to help save humanity

urna

a whorl of hair, represented as a dot, between the brows; one of the lakshanas of the buddha

ushnisha

a knot of hair on the top of the head; on eof the lakshanas of th buddha

mudras

in buddhist and hindu ionography- a stylized and symbolic hand gesture

parinirvana

image of the reclining buddha, a position often interpreted as representing his death

chakravartin

in south asia, the ideal king, the universal lord who ruled through goodness

viharas

buddhist monasteries, often cut into a hill

stupas

a large, mound-shaped buddhist shrine

chaitya halls

south-asian rock-cut temple halls with a votive stupa at one end

reliquaries

containers for holding relics

circumambulation

in buddhist worship, walking around the stupa in a clockwise direction, a process intended to bring the worshiper into harmony with the cosmos

mandalas

sanskrit term for the sacred diagram of the universe; japanese, mandara.

toranas

gateway in the stone fence around a stupa, located at the cardinal points of the compass

harmika

in buddhist architecture- a stone fence or railing that encloses an area surmounting the dome of a stupa that represnts one of the budhist heavens; from the center arises the yasti

yasti

in buddhist architecture- the mast or pole that arises from the dome of the stupa and its harmika and symbolizes the axis of the universe; it is adorned with a series of chatras (stone disks)

chatras

stone disks

jatakas
(sutra)

tales of the past lives of the buddha
(an account of a sermon by or a dialogue involving the buddha. a scriptural account of the buddha)

yakshis (yakshas)

lesser local male (female) buddhist and hindu divinities.
yakshi-female- associated with fertility and vegetation
yaksha-male- represented as fleshy but powerfull males

ambulatory

(in buddhist architecture) the passageway leading around the stupa in a chaitya hall

mithunas

in south asian art, a male-female couple embracing or engaged in sexual intercourse

rathas

small, freestanding hindu temple carved from a huge boulder

garbha griha

hindu, "womb chamber"
in hindu temples, the cella, the holy inner sanctum, for the cult image or symbol

shikhara

the beehive-shaped tower of a northern-style hindu temple

amalaka

in hindu temple design, the large flat disk with ribbed edges surmounting the beehive-shaped tower

mandapas

pillared hall of a hindu temple

vimanas

a pyramidal tower over the garbha griha of a hindu temple o the southern or dravida, style

wats

buddhist monasteries in cambodia

shiva
(hindu gods and goddesses)

active role = creative force
depicted as lingham as an abstract reference to his creative and reproductive abilities
destructive force in his fierce aspect
depicted with piles of hair (think dreds) on head, and a 3rd eye on his forehead, & a trident

nandi
(hindu gods and goddesses)

bull belonging to shiva
gate keeper of shiva and parvati

vishnu
(hindu gods and goddesses)

preserver of the universe
many forms: boar, fish, tortoise, lion, & krishna
could be on a flating serpent (cosmic waters)
appears to restore the balance in the world
married to lakshmi

krishna
(hindu gods and goddesses)

the "cowherd of brindabad"- blue skin and symbolic of love/earthly diety

devi
(hindu gods and goddesses)

serves as yoni or feminine creative force
multiple aspects (parvati, uma, durga, and kali[-the destructive aspect with necklace of skulls, goddess of death])

parvati
(hindu gods and goddesses)

consort of shiva
aspect of devi

uma
(hindu gods and goddesses)

divine aspect of devi
the "great mother"

lakshmi
(hindu gods and goddesses)

wife of vishnu

radha
(hindu gods and goddesses)

reincarnation of lakshmi(?)

durga
(hindu gods and goddesses)

active aspect of devi
warrioress, rides a tiger or lion

ganesha
(hindu gods and goddesses)

"remover of obstacles"- the son of parvati and shiva
head of an elephant
hugely popular among modern hindu as a god of good luck and prosperity
pot belly shows prosperity and good health, a protector

brahma
(hindu gods and goddesses)

all dieties are seen as an aspect of brahma
"world soul" and creator
depicted w/ 4 heads and faces, all knowing
creator yet born of vishnu (restorer of universal order)

characters

in chinese writing, signs that record spoken words

earthenware

pottery made of clay that is fired at low temperatures and is slightly porous. can also be figurines and statuetes produced in the same way

stoneware

pottery fired at high temperatures to produce a stonelike hardness and density

lacquer

a varnishlike substance made from the sap of the asiatic sumac tree
used to decorate wood and other organic materials, colored with mineral pigments and cures to a great hardness to have a lustrous surface

bi

in ancient chna, jade disks carved as ritual objects for burial with the dead.
often decorated with with piercings that extended entirely through the object as well as with suface carvings

daoism

philosophical system developed by lao-zi advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
a religion in which the goal is to come into harmony with dao
dao= underlying principle in nature of which humans were manifested on

confucianism

system of ethics concerned with human relations and consequences of human actions
a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by confucius and developed by mencius

beams

a horizontal structural member that carries the load of the superstructure of a building, a timber lintel

struts

a timber plank or other structural member used as a support in a building
also a short section of marble used to support an arm or leg in a statue

purlins

horizontal beams in a roof structure, parallel to the ridgepoles, resting on the main rafters and giving support ot the secondary rafters

rafters

the sloping supporting timber planks that run from the ridgepole of a roof to its edge

bays

the space between two columns, or one unit in the nave arcade of a church; also the passageway in an arcuated gate

hanging scrolls

in asian art, a vertical scroll hung on a wall with pictures mounted or painted directly on it

handscrolls

in asian art, a horizontal painted scroll that is unrolled right to left, section by section, and often used to present illustrated religious texts or landscapes

album leaves

paintings on a single sheet of paper for a collection stored in an album

fans

(hand-held fan) an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself
any broad, flat surface waved back-and-forth will create a small airflow and therefore can be considered a rudimentary fan
generally shaped like a sector of a circle and made of a thin material mounted on slats which revolve around a pivot so that it can be closed when not in use.

sutra

in buddhism, an account of a sermon by or a dialogue involving the buddha
a scriptural account of he buddha

mandorla

in buddhist japan- a lotus-petal shaped numbus surrounding a sacred figure

lalitasana pose

in buddhist iconography, the body pose with one leg folded and the other hanging down, indicating relaxation

porcelain

extremely fine, hard, white ceramic
made from a fine white clay called kaolin mixed with ground petuntse, a type of feldspar
true porcelain is translucent and rings when struck

sgraffito

a chinese ceramic technique in which the design is incised through a colored slip

pagoda

an east asian tower, usually associated with a buddhist temple, having a multiplicity of winged eaves
thougt to be derived from the indian stupa

Robed Male Figure
Indus Civilization
(trefoils)

Nude Male Torso
Indus Civilization

Seal with Seated Figure in Yogic Posture
Indus Civilization

Ashokan pillar
Mauryan Dynasty

Lion Capital
Shunga, Andhra and Kushan Dynasties
(Ashokan pillar)

Great Stupa
Shunga, Andhra and Kushan Dynasties
(Buddhist)

Toranas at Sanchi
Buddhism

Yakshi
Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties
(from the Great Stupa)

Interior of the Chaitya Hall
Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties
(Buddhist)

Bodhisattva Padmapani
Gupta and Post-Gupta

Meditating Buddha
Shunga, Andhra and Kushan Dynasties

Seated Buddha preaching first sermon
Gupta, Post-Gupta

Boar Avatar of Vishnu Rescuing the Earth
Gupta and Post-Gupta

Vishnu Temple (looking North)
Gupta and Post-Gupta

Rock-cut Rathas
Medieval
(rathas)

Shiva as Nataraja
Medieval

Aerial view of Borobudur
Indonesia, Medieval
(Buddhist)

Aerial view of Angkor Wat
Cambodia Medieval
(Vishnu for king)

Yangshao Culture vases
Neolithic and Shang Dynasty
(earthenware)

Guang
Neolithic and Shang Dynasty
(bronze-casting)

Standing Male Figure
Neolithic and Shang Dynasty

Bi disk
Zhou Dynasty

Army of the First Emperor of Qin
Qin Dynasty

Funeral Banner
Han Dynasty

Shakyamuni Buddha
Zhou Dynasty/Age of Disunity

Vairocana Buddha with Disciples and Bodhisattvas
Tang Dynasty

Foguang Si Pagoda
Tang Dynasty
(Buddhist)

Neighing Horse
Tang Dynasty
(earthenware)

Travelers among Mountains and Streams
Song Dynasty
FAN KUAN
(Taoist)

On a Mountain Path in Spring
Song Dynasty
MA YUAN

Indus Civilization
(Chapter Six- South and Southeast Asia subcategory)

2600 - 1500 BCE

Maurya Dynasty
(Chapter Six- South and Southeast Asia subcategory)

323 - 186 BCE

Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties
(Chapter Six- South and Southeast Asia subcategory)

c. 185 BCE - 320 CE

Gupta and Post-Gupta Periods
(Chapter Six- South and Southeast Asia subcategory)

c. 320 - 647 CE

Medieval Period
(Chapter Six- South and Southeast Asia subcategory)

7th to 12th Centuries

Shang Dynasty
(Chapter Seven- China and Korea subcategory)

c. 1600 - 1050 BCE

Zhou and Qin Dynasties
(Chapter Seven- China and Korea subcategory)

c. 1050 - 206

Han Dynasty and Period of Disunity
(Chapter Seven- China and Korea subcategory)

206 BCE - 581 CE

Tang Dynasty
(Chapter Seven- China and Korea subcategory)

618 - 907

Song Dynasty
(Chapter Seven- China and Korea subcategory)

960 - 1279

Great Bath
Indus Civilization

...

The Life and Death of Buddha
Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties

...

Buddha Seated on Lion Throne
Shunga, Andhra and Kushan Dynasties
(yaksha)

...

Interior of Cave 19
Gupta and Post-Gupta
(Buddhist/Hindu)

...

Dancing Shiva
Gupta and Post-Gupta

...

Vishnu Asleep on the Serpent Ananta
Gupta and Post-Gupta

...

Rajarajeshvara Temple
Medieval
(Southern)

...

Vishvanatha Temple
Medieval
(Northern)

...

Mithuna Reliefs (detail of Vishvanatha Temple)
Medieval

...

Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana)
Sri Lanka Medieval

...

Harihara
Cambodia Medieval
(Shiva/Vishnu)

...

Vishnu Lying on the Cosmic Ocean
Cambodia Medieval

...

King Suryavarman Holding Court
Cambodia Medieval
(Angkor Wat glorifying Vishnu)

...

Towers of the Bayon
Cambodia Medieval
(king embraces Buddhism)

...

The Archer Yi and a Reception in a Mansion
Han Dynasty and Period of Disunity
(attempt to assassin emporer of Qin)

...

Model of a House
Han Dynasty and Period of Disunity

...

Lady Feng and the Bear
Han Dynasty and Period of Disunity
GU KAIZHI
(hand scroll)

...

Shakyamuni and Prabhutatatna
Han Dynasty and Period of Disunity
(meeting of two Buddhas, mandorla/lalitasana)

...

Paradise of Amitabha
Tang Dynasty
(Buddhist)

...

Palace Ladies
Tang Dynasty
(tomb of Princess Yongtai)

...

Auspicious Cranes
Song Dynasty
EMPEROR HUIZONG
(handscroll)

...

Meiping Vase
Song Dynasty
(meiping/sgraffito)

...

Lohans Giving Alms to Beggars
Song Dynasty
ZHOU JICHANG
(handscroll)

...

Crown from north mound of tomb 98
Korean

...

Shakyamuni Buddha
Korean
(rotanda of cave)

...

Maebyong Vase
Korea
(meiping/roundels)

...

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