Biological Anthropology 1

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Primates

-a mammalian order
-includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans

Anthropoids (Anthropoidea)

-infraorder
-includes monkeys, apes and humans

morphology

-the form (shape, size) of anatomical structures
-can also refer to the entire organism

omnivorous

diet of many food types, such as plant materials, meat and insects

diurnal

active during the day
-these primates rely heavily on vision and less olfaction

stereoscopic vision

condition where visual images are, to varying degrees super imposed (3D)
-made possible by: binocular vision, structure in the brain, and organization of visual information

binocular vision

vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by eye placement (forward facing eyes)

hemispheres

2 halves of the cerebrum (receive visual data)

neocortex

-more recently evolved portions of cortex
-involved with higher mental functions and composed of areas that integrate incoming info from senses
*primate characteristics-larger and more complex brain

sensory modalities

-different forms of sensation
(examples: touch, pain, pressure, heat, cold, vision, taste, hearing, and smell)

arboreal

tree living; adapted to life in the trees

adaptive niche

-an organism's entire way of life
-where it lives, what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators, etc

dental formula

-numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws
-different primates have different combos

cusps

the bumps on the chewing surface of premolar and molars
-for tearing meat

quadrupedal

-4 limbs to support the body during locomotion

brachiation

-arm swinging
-form of locomotion
-gibbons and siamangs use this almost exclusively

lumbar

-pertaining to lower back
-longer in monkeys than it is humans and apes
-->helps brachiation

Strepsirhini (strepsirhine)

-suborder after primates
-includes lemurs and lorises

Haplorhini (haplorhine)

-suborder after primates
-includes tarsier, monkeys, apes and humans

Lemurs & Lorises (Lemuriformes)

-most primitive (similar to earlier ancestor anatomically) living primates
-pronounced olfaction
-rhinarium
-eyes placed to the side of the face, differences in reproductive physiology, and shorter gestation and maturation periods
-"dental comb" and "grooming claw"

rhinarium

the moist hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammalian species
-enhances smell

Lemurs (Lemuroidea)

-found only on the island of Madagascar
-diversified into numerous and varied ecological niches without competition from monkeys and apes
-larger=diurnal (eat fruits, leaves, bugs and bark)
-smaller=nocturnal (insectivorous)
-varied social structures and locomotion

Lorises (Lorisoidea)

-tropical forests and woodlands of India, Sri Lanka, South East Asia, and Africa
-slow, cautious quadrupedals
-insectivorous
-female-female associations (feed and nest together)

Tarsiers (Tarsiformes)

-5 species (South East Asia islands)
-eat insects and small vertebrates
-highly derived (specialized)
-enormous eyes
-size of brain=size of eye
-180 degree head turn
-social structure=mated pair and their young offspring
-unusual mix of lemurs and lorises and anthropoids

Anthropoid characteristics

1) larger average body size
2) larger brain
3) reduced olfaction (no rhinarium)
4) reliance on vision (forward facing eyes)
5) greater color vision
6) back of eye socket protected by a bony plate
7) blood supply to brain different from lemurs
8) fusion of mandable to one
9) generalized dentition (no dental comb)
10) difference in female internal reproductive anatomy
11) longer gestation and maturation periods
12) increased parental care
13) more mutual grooming

New World Monkeys (Platyrhini)

-Platyrhine
-70 species
-almost exclusively arboreal
-S. Mexico, Central & S. America
-2 families: Callitrichidae & Cebid
-12 ounces to 20 pounds
-most are quadrupedal, some semibrachiators
-mixed sex groups to some family units
(examples: marmosets, tamarins, squirrel monkeys, howler)
-flared nostrils

Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecoidea)

-widely distributed- tropical forest to semiarid desert to snow covered areas of Asia
-most quadrupedal and arboreal
-1 family: Cercopitheidae
-2 subfamilies: cercopithecines & colobines
-ischial callosites
-some sexual dimorphism; most terrestrial species
-monogamous pairs aren't common-seen in a few species
-downward nose (catarhine)

Cercopithecines

-baboons, macaques, guenos
-eat anything

Colobines

-african colobus monkeys, asian langurs
-eat mature leaves

ischial callosites

patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks of old world monkeys and chimpanzees

sexual dimorphism

physical differences between females and males of the same species

Hominoid (hominoidea) characteristics

-apes and humans
1) no tail
2) generally larger body size (except gibbons and siamangs)
3) lower back, shorter and more stable
4) arms longer than legs (only in apes)
5) anatomical differences in shoulder joint that help feeding and locomotion
6) generally more complex behavior
7) more complex brain and enhanced cognitive abilities
8) increased period of infant development and dependency

Gibbons and Siamangs

-smallest apes
-tropical ares of SE Asia
-brachiators (related to feeding while hanging)
-eat fruit with leaves, flowers, and insects
-monogamous paris and offspring units
-males involved in rearing young
-territorial

territorial

pertaining to the protection of all or a part of the area occupied by an animal or group of animals
-scent marking to attacks on intruders

Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)

-heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra
-almost completely arboreal
-pronounced sexual dimorphism
-solitary (hang in same area but only associate for mating)
-frugivorous, rarely meat, leaves, bark
-males have throat pads
-slow, cautious climbers

frugivorous

having a diet composed of primarily fruits

Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla)

-forested regions of central Africa
-pronounced sexual dimorphism
-primarily terrestrial->"knuckle walking"
-groups= 1 male (silver back) and a few adult females and their subadult offspring
-usually leave natal group at young adults--> females into another group, males solitary, "bachelor" group until they can form their own.

natal group

groups in which animals are born and raised

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

-apes
-equatorial Africa
-anatomically similar to gorillas (limb proportions and upper body shapes)
-"knuckle-walking" and some brachiation
-eat variety of plant and animal foods (omnivores)
-large communities of as many as 50 individuals depending on resources

Bonobos

-only a few thousand individuals
-only found in area south of the Zaire River
-same foods of chimpanzees including small mammals (male-female bonds constitute the societal core)
-sexuality includes frequent copulations throughout female's estrous cycle
-"just have sex" mentality

Humans

-omnivorous diets, bipedal, only living species in the family Hominidae
-cognitive abilities are the results of dramatic increases in brain size

intelligence

-mental capacity
-ability to learn, reason or comprehend and interpret information, facts, relationship and meanings
-capacity to solve problems, whether through the application of previously acquired knowledge or though insight

natural selection

the most critical mechanism of evolutionary change; first described by Charles Darwin
-refers to genetic change/changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals
1)reproductive competition
2)variation in reproduction
3)heritability

fixity of species

the notion that species once created can never change; an idea opposed to theories of biological evolution
-inhibited advancement

reproductively isolated

groups of organisms that are prevented from mating (offspring), due to genetic differences, with members of other such groups
-aka species
-proposed by John Ray

binomial nomenclature

-established by Carolus Linnaeus
-whereby species and genus are used to refer to species
-Genus + species

taxonomy

branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships

catastrophism

the view that the earths geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events
-proposed by Georges Cuvier
-opposed Lamarck

uniformitarianism

the theory that the earth's features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present like in the past.
-originally by James Hutton
-elaborated by Charles Lyell
-opposed by catastrophism

reproductive success

the number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age
-an individuals genetic contribution to the next generation

selective pressures

-forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals

fertility

-the ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring (# of eggs = ___, raised birds = net)

genome

-the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species
-comparing genomes helps explain evolution of individuals

biological continuity

when expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories, they exist on a continuum.

christian fundamentalist

adherents to a movement in American Protestanism that began in early 20th century
-teachings of bible are infallible and literal
-"creation science"

stabilization selection

no extreme, more of the middle
-adaption for survival
-ex. babies are all around same birth weight
-middle tight arch

directional selection

-normal curve, pushing out to one side
-ex. deep beaks more beneficial

oscillating selection

-selection fluxuates because selective pressures change

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

(1744-1829)
-suggested a relationship between species and the environment so that if external environment changed so would animals activity patterns
-"inheritance of acquired characteristics"
-use/disuse theory
-offered a mechanism of evolution although incorrect

Charles Darwin

-spoiled, England countryside upbringing
-natural selection
-Galapagos Island-->finches
-published "On the Origin of Species"
-inspired by grandfather (Arasmus Darwin)

Alfred Russel Wallace

-poor underdog
-came to same conclusion as Darwin but without as much proof
-published stuff after Darwin
-different social circles and time had a lot of influence in publishing

John Ray

-17th Century
-genus and species
-reproductively isolated

Carolus Linnaeus

-"father of taxonomy"
-binomial nomenclature
-elaborated genus/species concepts

Thomas Malthus

-wrote "An Essay on the Principles of Population" in 1798
-influenced Darwin and Wallace although it wasnt about biology
-argued that for limits to human population growth --> tendencies for population increase is constantly checked by the availability of resources
-competition between individuals

Georges Cuvier

proposed catastrophism to oppose Lamarck

Charles Lyell

-"founder of geology"
-proposed uniformitarianism (opposed catastrophism)
-also 1st person to say the Earth is SUPER old --> "deep time"

Mary Anning

-fossilist
-first compete fossil of Ichthyosaurus (large fishlike reptile)

James Ussher

-had a specific date in which the Earth was born
-6000 year old Earth (still very popular)

Copernicus

sun is center not earth

Galileo

proved Copernicus with mathematics

Georges Louis Letrec de Buffon

(1707-1788)
-recognized that alteration of the external environment aided change in species

fitness

a measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals
(aka genetic fitness, reproductive fitness, differential reproductive success)

principle of segregation

genes (alleles) occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs - when gametes each contain one member of each pair

principle of independent assortment

distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes doesn't influence distribution of another

modern synthesis

-mutation and natural selection=evolution
1) the production and redistribution of variation (inherited differences)
2) natural selection action on variation among individuals differentially affect ability to successfully reproduce

genotype

genetic makeup

phenotype

physical traits

random assortment

chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis --> genetic variation

codominance

-heterozygote with 2 different dominant alleles (both influence the phenotype)

polygenic

-continuous traits (intermediate forms)
-governed by alleles at 2 or more loci and each locus has some influence on the phenotype
(ex. skin, hair, and eyes)

pigment

molecules that influence the color of skin, hair and eyes; produced by melanocytes

pleiotropy

a single gene influences more than one characteristics (rule rather than exception)
-example PKU

allele frequency

in a population, the percent of all alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele

population

within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found

gene pool

all of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
-only a population can evolve over time (individuals cannot)

microevolution

small changes occuring within a species like allele frequencies

macroevolution

changes produced only after many generations like a new species

nondisjunction

chromosomes don't separate during either of the 2 division in meiosis.
-one daughter cell receives 2 copies of chromosome and one cell receives none

trisomy

3 copies of a chromosome
-example: trisomy 21 = down syndrome

Gregor Mendel

-principles of heredity
-explored ways physical traits could be expressed in plant hybrids
-recessive v. dominant

gene flow

exchange of genes between populations aka "migration" (helps interbreed)
-not only movements of population but long term patterns of mate selection contribute to significant changes.

genetic drift

changes in allele frequencies that are provided by random factors in small populations
-founders affect and bottle neck

founder affect

-type of genetic drift
-allele frequencies are altered in small population (ex. colonization)

homeobox gene

an evolutionary ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues
-dont vary from species to species
-basis of biological continuity

point mutation

a change in one of the 4 DNA bases

autosomes

Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual

gametes

-sex chromosomes (X and Y)

homologies

similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor

analogies

similarities based on common function
-ex. birds and butterflies

homoplasy

the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms

evolutionary systematics

a traditional approach to classification in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.

cladistics

an approach to classification that attempts to make a rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters
-focused on derived characters

phylogenetic tree

-includes time
-ancestor descendant relationships

cladogram

-a diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
-ignores time
-no attempt of ancestor-descendant relationship

ancestral characteristics

referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups
-broad; not finite on specific lineage

clade

group of organisms sharing a common ancestor

monophyletic

referring to an evolutionary group (clade) composed of descendants all sharing a common ancestor

polyphyletic

referring to an evolutionary group composed of descendants with more than one common ancestor

derived (modified)

referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.

biological species concept

-definition of species
-emphasis on interbreeding and reproductive isolation

recognition species concept

-definition of species
-key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members of their own species for purposes of mating
-compatible with biological species concept

ecological species concept

-definition of species
-a group of organisms exploiting a single niche

phylogenetic species concept

-definition of species
-splitting many populations into separate species based on an identifiable parental pattern of ancestry

allopatric

-most widely accepted ,
-speciation
-occurring in areas isolated geographically from one another

parapatric

-speciation
-adjacent, but non-overlapping populations that contact each other
-environmentally different
-gray area with hybrids

sympatric

-speciation
-occurring in the same or overlapping geographical areas
-least significant

intraspecific

Within species; refers to variation seen within the same species.

interspecific

Between species; refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species.

speciation

process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species

geological time scale

the organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs
-Paleozoic, Mesoic, Cenozoic

adaptive radiation

the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches

phyletic gradualism

change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages.
-transitional
-"steady tempo"

punctuated equilibrium

evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change
-long periods of no change interrupted by sudden bursts

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