Chapter 16: Nutrition During Adulthood

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Nutrition During Adulthood Chapter 16

Graying in America

People over 65:
13% of population
25% of all prescription medication
40% of all hospitalizations
50% of federal health budget
65% have nutrition related problems

What is Aging

-Time dependent physical and physiological changed in body structure and function.
Process of slow cell growth
-Aging body can no longer replenish cells or meet physiological demands
-Organs retain reserve capatcity

Causes of Aging

Genetic/Hereditary
Environmental
Lifestyle
Usual Aging
Diseases

Life Span

Maximum number of years a particular species has remained alive
Record
122- woman
114-man
Dependent on genes and environment

Life Expectancy

Number of years an average person, born in a specific year, is expected to live
North America:
75 for men
80 for women
Only 64 "healthy years"
Anticipate a tremendous growth in the 85+ years old population

Fountain of Youth

Avoid:
excessive sun exposure
smoking
exposure to environmental hazards and chemicals
exercise regularly
healthy diet

Nutrient Needs

Calorie needs decrease
 Protein can help preserve muscle and
bone mass
 Limit fat
 Emphasize complex carbohydrates
 Plenty of fluids

Mineral and Vitamin Needs

Calcium and Vitamin D
 Iron
- Blood loss
 Zinc
- Decreased absorption
 Magnesium
- Limited intake
 Folate, B-6 and B-12

Nutrition Concerns with Aging

decrease: appitite, chewing ability, sense of thirst, bowel function, lactose production, iron status, liver function, insulin function, kidney function, immune function, lung function, vision, lean tissue, cardiovascular function, bone mass and mental function

increase: fat stores

Medications Influence Nutrition Needs

Two-thirds of all elderly take prescription
drugs
 May interact with nutrients
 May affect appetite
 May increase loss of nutrients
 Diuretics leach potassium out of the body
 Long-term aspirin use can lead to anemia

Alternative Medicine

Not evaluated by FDA
Examples:
Black Cohosh
Cranberry
Echinacea
Garlic
Ginkgo Biloba
Ginseng
St. John's Wort
Valerian

Depression & Nutrition

Isolation and loneliness are common
Death of loved one
Poor appetite and food choices
Many live alone
Use of medications
Need social support

Economics & Nutrition

Retirement
May have to pay for health insurance
Less money to purchase food which leads to buying cheap convenient foods, lack nutrient dense foods and choose to pay bills over buying food

Benefits of Good Nutrition

Delays onset of some diseases
Improves current condition
Improves quality of life
Decreases length of hospital stays
More independence

Barriers to Eating Healthy

Money, Depression, Living Alone, Poor Eyesight, Smaller portions are more costly, Dexterity decreases, transportation, pride or fear

Community Nutrition Services

Congregate meal programs:
provide lunch a t a central location
meals on wheels
provide 1/3 of the RDA/AI
Federal commodity distribution

Alcohol

Ethanol
Provides 7 kcals per gram
3% of total calories in typical American diet are from alcohol
14 million Americans suffer from alcoholism

What defines a drink

12 oz of beer/wine cooler
5 oz of wine
3 oz liqueur
1.5 oz of distilled spirits

Alcohol Absorption

Absorbed rapidly via simple diffusion
 Depends on rate of stomach emptying
 Rate of absorption
- Wine  liqueur  beer (slowest)
 Alcohol is found wherever water is found
in the body
 Easily moves through the cell membrane
(damaging it)

Alcohol (Ethanol) Metabolism

Depends on
Gender, race, size, food, physical condition, alcohol content
Majority is metabolized by the liver
Alcohol cannot be stored
Alcohol has priority in metabolism

Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption

One drink a day for women / two for men
-Decreases risk for cardiovascular disease
-Socialization

Cirrhosis

chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency
50% chance of death within 4 years
Non-reversible

Alcohol Abuse

Contributes yo 5 0f 10 leading causes of death
When combined with tobacco: increases risk for esophageal and oral cancer
Increased risk for:
heart damage, arrhythmia, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, brain damage, cancer, nutritional deficiency, fetal damage, obesity, Impotence, sleep disturbances, infections, and hypoglycemia

Alcohol Dependence

Addictive and dangerous
Genetic influence
--tolerance to alcohol
-be aware of alcohol consumption
-children of alcoholics are 4x more likely to become -alcoholics themselves
-warn children of alcoholic families of the dangers by age 10
Long term drinking poses risk for all
Affects 13% of all Americans and is most common psychiatric disorder
Costs:
Lost pf productivity
Premature Deaths
Legal Fees

CAGE Screening

C: Have you every felt you ought to cut down on drinking?
A: Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?
G: Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking?
E: Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover? (As an eye-opener)

Diagnosis of Alcohol Addiction

Physiological dependence on alcohol
tolerance to the effects of alcohol
Alcohol associated illnesses such as memory loss, liver disease, etc.
Continued drinking in defiance of medical and social contraindications
Depression and blackouts
Flushed face/reddened skin

Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

Guidance from a physician
Counseling
Total abstinence
AA 12 step program
Treatment programs
Medication

Guidance Regarding Alcohol

DGA" Moderation, lower risk for CVD, little benefits for younger people
Drink with meals
Don't drink and drive
Avoid drinking while pregnant

Benefits of Good Nutrition

Nondrinkers
-should not start drinkers, Delays onset of some diseases
Improves current condition
Improves quality of life
Decreases length of hospital stays
More independence

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