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Why did early Buddhists believe portraying Buddha in art was impossible

He had passed to nirvana

After the Han dynasty fell in 220 CE, why did the Chinese's reject Confucianism for Buddhism?

They blamed Confucianism for civil and cultural dysfunction

What did the Tang Chinese believe their capital city's gird plan mirrored?

Order of the cosmos

Why did Chinese emperors never face the north?

To avoid evil spirits, which came from the north

What development enabled the Chinese to build suspension bridges and pagodas?

Iron and steel casting

What earlier structure inspired the pagoda design?

Indian stupas

Why did Song painters value landscape above other subjects?

It embodied the principle behind all things

What did bamboo in the exiled scholar-painters art symbolize?

Chinese peoples ability to bend and not to break

What competing forces dominated Indias history prior to 1200?

Religious

On what Chinese written character is Guo Xi's Early Spring modeled?

Mountain

What is the goal of every Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist before crossing into paradise?

To help others reach enlightment

Why did Tibetan Buddhist monks create the rolled-up cloth painting thangkas?

Instructional aids

What does the moat surrounding the Hindu temple Angkor Wat represent?

The oceans

Why is a dancing Shiva commonly portrayed within a circle of fire

To symbolize his creative and destructive powers

On what qualities were Japanese Heian court women judged?

Their language skills

Why did the Heian women write using the new, purely Japanese system, Hiragana?

The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women

What new literary form did the Japanese court women create?

Zuihitsu

What worlds first is Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji considered to be?

Novel

What regional samurai clan overthrew the Heians and began the Kamakura Period?

Minamoto

What immediate act by the first shogun, Yoritomo, defined his rule?

Land grants to his followers

Why did africas Ife people consider their king's head of supreme importance?

It has home of the spirit

What do the Yoruba people believe their king links?

The gods and ancestral heroes

Why must the Yoruba king cover his face with rows of beads?

To shield viewers from the power of his gaze

Why did the Benin build the massive earthwork walls and moats around their capital city?

As protection from raiding elephants

Why did West African poets compose praise poems?

To gain influence over the poems subject

For what purpose do modern scholars believe the Shona built massive walls in the Great Enclosure, Great Zimbabwe?

To separate the royalty from the common people

What fundamental tool of civilization did the Classic Era Mesoamerican cultures lack?

The wheel

Why did the Mesoamerican cultures view Teotihuacan as a a holy site?

It was their place of origin

What is the Popol Vuh?

The Maya book of creation

Why was blood sacrifice central to Aztec Culture?

The sun, moon, and earth needed human blood for sustenance

Why did the court scholar-painters retreat from public life during the Yan Dynasty?

They were unwilling to serve under the Mongols

Why was gothic as applied to Frances new architecture orignally a deogatory term?

Goth's destroyed classic traditions

Who designed the Abbey of Saint- Dinis's design?

Abbot Suget

Why was light vital to Saint Desis's design

Light is the physical and material manifestation of the Divine Spirit

Why was Saint Denis not completed during Sugers lifetime?

They didn't have enough funding to finish

What from Charles Cathedral survived the devasting fire of 1194?

Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere- Stained Glass of the virgin, WEST POSOD

What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals?

Organ

Why did the gothic Cathedrals contain stained glass programs?

Tells story to people who can't read

Which of the following innovations was key in gothic architecture?

Rib Vaulting

Why is the Jesse tree a common stain glass motif?

They were thought to represent the genealogy of Christ

Why did gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?

Flying buttress allowed more light, and better structure of the weight on the Cathedral

In what area of Italy are Siena and Florence located?

Tuscany

According to legend who founded Siena?

Remu's sons, Senius and Aschius

Why did Siena experience population growth after 1125?

Its free commune status offered freedom from feudalism

Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power?

Siena was an important manufacturing city

Which guild in pre-1355 Siena was most powerful?

Merchants

Why do pictures of the Virgin Mary abound in Siena?

Siena called itself "ancient city of the virgin"

On what trade was Florence's wealth based?

Textiles

Why by the end of the fourteenth century did Florence become an important banking city?

The pope conferred Siena's papal banking privileges on Florences

What was the Florentine bankers most important invention?

Europe's first single currency

Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government?

Only guild members

Who was Florence's patron saint?

John the Baptist

Why is the virgin mary's crown in Simone Martini's Maestra significant?

It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular gueen

Why in the Arena Chapel fresoces does Giotto deliberately abandon the Byzantine blance and symmetry?

To make the scenes look more relistic

Why was the book of kells moved from LOna off the Scottish coast to kellis in Ireland?

Protect it from the Vikings

What leads to rolands death

His pride

Why did HIldegard of Bingen believe her plain chant brought heaven and earth together

Soaring arches

Where was the first university founded

Bologna, Italy

On whose method did Peter Abelard base teaching

Dialectial by Socrates

Why was Abe and castrated and forced to seek sanctuary in a monastery

Impregnated student, heloise

On whose relationship was the popular poem the roman de la rose based on?

heloise

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