Why did early Buddhists believe portraying Buddha in art was impossible
He had passed to nirvana
After the Han dynasty fell in 220 CE, why did the Chinese's reject Confucianism for Buddhism?
They blamed Confucianism for civil and cultural dysfunction
What did the Tang Chinese believe their capital city's gird plan mirrored?
Order of the cosmos
Why did Chinese emperors never face the north?
To avoid evil spirits, which came from the north
What development enabled the Chinese to build suspension bridges and pagodas?
Iron and steel casting
What earlier structure inspired the pagoda design?
Why did Song painters value landscape above other subjects?
It embodied the principle behind all things
What did bamboo in the exiled scholar-painters art symbolize?
Chinese peoples ability to bend and not to break
What competing forces dominated Indias history prior to 1200?
On what Chinese written character is Guo Xi's Early Spring modeled?
What is the goal of every Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist before crossing into paradise?
To help others reach enlightment
Why did Tibetan Buddhist monks create the rolled-up cloth painting thangkas?
What does the moat surrounding the Hindu temple Angkor Wat represent?
Why is a dancing Shiva commonly portrayed within a circle of fire
To symbolize his creative and destructive powers
On what qualities were Japanese Heian court women judged?
Their language skills
Why did the Heian women write using the new, purely Japanese system, Hiragana?
The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women
What new literary form did the Japanese court women create?
What worlds first is Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji considered to be?
What regional samurai clan overthrew the Heians and began the Kamakura Period?
What immediate act by the first shogun, Yoritomo, defined his rule?
Land grants to his followers
Why did africas Ife people consider their king's head of supreme importance?
It has home of the spirit
What do the Yoruba people believe their king links?
The gods and ancestral heroes
Why must the Yoruba king cover his face with rows of beads?
To shield viewers from the power of his gaze
Why did the Benin build the massive earthwork walls and moats around their capital city?
As protection from raiding elephants
Why did West African poets compose praise poems?
To gain influence over the poems subject
For what purpose do modern scholars believe the Shona built massive walls in the Great Enclosure, Great Zimbabwe?
To separate the royalty from the common people
What fundamental tool of civilization did the Classic Era Mesoamerican cultures lack?
Why did the Mesoamerican cultures view Teotihuacan as a a holy site?
It was their place of origin
What is the Popol Vuh?
The Maya book of creation
Why was blood sacrifice central to Aztec Culture?
The sun, moon, and earth needed human blood for sustenance
Why did the court scholar-painters retreat from public life during the Yan Dynasty?
They were unwilling to serve under the Mongols
Why was gothic as applied to Frances new architecture orignally a deogatory term?
Goth's destroyed classic traditions
Who designed the Abbey of Saint- Dinis's design?
Why was light vital to Saint Desis's design
Light is the physical and material manifestation of the Divine Spirit
Why was Saint Denis not completed during Sugers lifetime?
They didn't have enough funding to finish
What from Charles Cathedral survived the devasting fire of 1194?
Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere- Stained Glass of the virgin, WEST POSOD
What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals?
Why did the gothic Cathedrals contain stained glass programs?
Tells story to people who can't read
Which of the following innovations was key in gothic architecture?
Why is the Jesse tree a common stain glass motif?
They were thought to represent the genealogy of Christ
Why did gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?
Flying buttress allowed more light, and better structure of the weight on the Cathedral
In what area of Italy are Siena and Florence located?
According to legend who founded Siena?
Remu's sons, Senius and Aschius
Why did Siena experience population growth after 1125?
Its free commune status offered freedom from feudalism
Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power?
Siena was an important manufacturing city
Which guild in pre-1355 Siena was most powerful?
Why do pictures of the Virgin Mary abound in Siena?
Siena called itself "ancient city of the virgin"
On what trade was Florence's wealth based?
Why by the end of the fourteenth century did Florence become an important banking city?
The pope conferred Siena's papal banking privileges on Florences
What was the Florentine bankers most important invention?
Europe's first single currency
Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government?
Only guild members
Who was Florence's patron saint?
John the Baptist
Why is the virgin mary's crown in Simone Martini's Maestra significant?
It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular gueen
Why in the Arena Chapel fresoces does Giotto deliberately abandon the Byzantine blance and symmetry?
To make the scenes look more relistic
Why was the book of kells moved from LOna off the Scottish coast to kellis in Ireland?
Protect it from the Vikings
What leads to rolands death
Why did HIldegard of Bingen believe her plain chant brought heaven and earth together
Where was the first university founded
On whose method did Peter Abelard base teaching
Dialectial by Socrates
Why was Abe and castrated and forced to seek sanctuary in a monastery
Impregnated student, heloise
On whose relationship was the popular poem the roman de la rose based on?