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ch6

Vegetarians have significantly higher rates of hypertension than the general population.

False

Most people in the U.S. would find it next to impossible not to meet their protein requirements.

True

Some foods are so high in acid that they are capable of making the acid in the stomach even stronger.

False

Sickle-cell disease is an example of an inherited mistake in the amino acid sequence.

True

Amino acid supplements are easy to digest and can relieve the digestive system from overworking.

False

When a person ingests a large dose of any single amino acid, absorption of others of its type may be limited.

True

If needed, protein can help to maintain a steady blood glucose level and so serve the glucose need of the brain.

True

Starvation always incurs wasting of lean body tissue as well as loss of fat.

True

The growth of well-fed vegetarian children is similar to that of their meat-eating peers.

True

PEM is the world's most widespread form of malnutrition.

True

For the majority of exercisers, adding excess protein or amino acid supplements to an adequate diet will stimulate muscle building.

False

Sound nutrition authorities acknowledge that well-chosen vegetarian diets are consistent with good health and can meet nutrient needs.

True

Certain proteins act as buffers in the blood. In this role they are responsible for:

picking up and releasing hydrogens in the blood to balance its pH.

Which of the following groups of the USDA Food Guide contribute(s) an abundance of high-quality protein?

b and c

Our body has the need to eat protein-containing foods regularly because:

we need essential amino acids that can only be provided by foods.

Which of the following provides amino acids that are best absorbed by the body?

animal proteins

A person who lost a large amount of weight during an illness has been advised by a health food store employee that he should add amino acid supplements to his diet to help in weight gain. What would you tell this person?

if he needs additional protein for recovery it should be as whole protein because the digestive system can handle that form better

The process of protein turnover involves:

the use of amino acids that have been conserved from breakdown of old cells.

For athletes, the path to bigger muscles includes

a and b

Which of the following is a health benefit of a vegetarian diet?

vegetarians tend to have lower blood pressure than nonvegetarians

The DRI Committee recommends _____ percent of total calories as the minimum amount of protein.

10

The genetic coding or expression that determines our DNA messaging for cells is:

available in all cells but is idle in some cells and active in others.

When planning a vegetarian diet, the following recommendation should be adhered to:

fruits and vegetables high in iron and calcium should be emphasized.

When amino acids are degraded for energy, their amine groups are stripped off and used elsewhere or incorporated by the liver into:

urea

A young man has said to you that he is eating much more protein in his diet than the recommendation but he feels he needs the extra amount just in case he wants to build more muscle mass in the near future. How would you respond to him?

if he has excess calories in his diet, he may gain fat weight from converted protein

Poorly-planned vegetarian diets typically lack all of the following except:

folate

What is the DRI for protein for a 40-year-old male who is 6'4" tall and weighs 180 pounds?

65 grams

What change in body function will occur in a child with marasmus?

the digestive tract develops dysentery, which results in diarrhea and mineral loss

The sequences of amino acids that make up a protein molecule are specified by:

heredity

Which of the following is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat?

nitrogen

Negative nitrogen balance occurs in:

a surgery patient

The best way for a vegetarian to ensure adequate absorption of iron in the diet is to:

include vitamin C-rich foods because they enhance absorption of iron

The more animal protein you eat, the higher your intake of _____.

vitamin B12

Compared to meat eaters, vegetarians tend to have:

b and c

A 3-year-old child from a homeless family has been brought into the health clinic with a swollen belly, fluid buildup around her ankles, brittle hair, and irritability. Her mother has been feeding her mostly bread and dry cereal over the past several months. Providers suspect that she may have which form of PEM?

kwashiorkor

The process of protein turnover includes:

eating food sources of amino acids every day to grow new cells and replace worn-out ones.

When comparing the digestion and absorption of proteins with fats it is important to know that:

cells in the small intestine preferentially absorb different types of amino acids, which causes competition by amino acids at the absorption sites.

How many amino acids are considered to be essential amino acids?

9

Proteins use the process of active transport to move substances in or out of the cell by:

opening passages in the membrane and escorting substances through the cell.

What is one of the risks of consuming a diet high in protein?

a high-protein diet can raise homocysteine levels in the blood

The heavy use of soy products in place of meat can inhibit _____ absorption.

iron

The recycling system for amino acids in the body is used to:

provide the cells with materials to build body proteins.

The role of enzymes in the small intestine in protein digestion is to split proteins into all except:

oligopeptides

A 135-pound woman needs how much protein?

49 grams/day

In times of energy shortage from carbohydrates or fats in foods, the body uses protein in what way?

it removes the nitrogen portion and burns the remaining fragments for energy

A child suffering from protein deficiency has edema. This is an example of protein's role in:

maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.

Which of the following accounts for the differences among the various amino acids?

the side chain

Your mother is considering changing her diet to include only non-meat proteins to reduce her risk of developing heart disease or cancer. What evidence is available to support her decision?

plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease

When amino acids are absorbed by the cells of the small intestine:

they can be circulated in the bloodstream to other cells and linked together to create new proteins.

The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by:

a coat of mucus

All of the following are needed for the body to synthesize protein except:

amino acid supplements

The roles of enzymes formed by body proteins are important when foods are eaten because:

an enzyme acts as a catalyst to speed up a reaction without being altered itself.

Cells will do all of the following to create their own working proteins from available amino acids except:

hold partially completed proteins until the diet provides the missing amino acids.

A woman who is on a vegan diet has become pregnant. What would be a health concern for her?

she may have difficulty gaining adequate weight during her pregnancy

The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called:

mutual supplementation.

Proteins attract water and hold it within blood vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between the cells. This is an example of how protein is used for:

maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.

A boy 10 years old is going through a growth spurt. Because he needs to build new muscle tissue, what should his nitrogen status be?

positive nitrogen balance

The DRI for protein for healthy adults is _____ gram(s) per kilogram of body weight.

0.8

Your friend states that she avoids acid foods like tomatoes and orange juice because they give her an acid stomach. How would you respond to this statement?

b and c

Which of the following statements is/are true?

Athletes need slightly more protein than other healthy adults.

An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because:

a and c

Which of the following cooking methods would you use to increase the digestibility of protein?

stewing

The body normally makes tyrosine from the essential amino acid:

phenylalanine

Your friend is a vegetarian who consumes large quantities of soy products in the place of meat. From a nutrition perspective, your friend is at risk of developing _____ deficiency.

iron

Which statement is true of a vegan diet?

very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue

In making recommendations for protein intake, the committee on DRI took into consideration that the protein in a normal diet would be:

a combination of animal and plant sources.

If amino acids are oversupplied:

b and c

Why is milk used as a first-aid remedy for someone who has swallowed a heavy-metal poison?

The poison acts on the protein in the milk rather than on the protein of the gastrointestinal tract

All of the following cause denaturation of proteins except:

light

The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most specifically as:

marasmus

Which of the following is not a characteristic of children with kwashiorkor?

They look like skin and bones.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of children with kwashiorkor?

They look like skin and bones.

An adolescent girl has decided to adhere to a vegetarian diet and has selected a tossed green salad, whole-wheat crackers, and apple juice for lunch. What would you advise her about her complementary protein sources?

adding garbanzo beans to her salad would provide the protein combination she needs

To ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium, vegans need to:

a and c

Why should eggs be cooked, rather than eaten raw?

a and c

The DRI for protein depends on:

body size

A child with marasmus would exhibit all of the following symptoms except:

edema

Of the following foods, which likely contains the most easily digestible protein?

tuna

A young man who is a sedentary college student needs how much protein if he weighs 175 pounds?

64 grams/day

An overemphasis on protein-rich foods can lead to:

b and c

Which of the following is not associated with an excess of protein?

enlarged livers in humans

Amino acids are wasted (not used to build protein or nitrogen-containing compounds) whenever there is:1. not enough energy from carbohydrate and fat.2. low-quality protein.3. too much protein.4. high-quality protein.

1,2,and 3

Which of the following would have the highest protein DRI per unit of body weight?

a 6-year-old-child

A(n) _____ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.

peptide

Children adhering to a vegan diet need to include which of the following foods to ensure adequate growth and bone development?

a and b

Examples of complementary protein combinations include all of the following except:

pasta with tomato sauce

Which of the following is a protein catalyst, which acts on other substances to change them chemically?

enzyme

Which of the following food groups does not provide significant protein?

fruits

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