ENSC exam 4

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chapter 18 and 19

the destruction of the ozone layer primarily occurs in the

stratosphere

most of the weather of the world is based upon changes in the moisture, pressure, and/or temperature of the

troposphere

winds we experience in our daily lives are mainly the result of

the movement of air between lower pressure and higher pressure regions

the jet streams in the united states generally flow from west to east because of

rotation of the earth

the 2007 report of the panel on climate change reported that global climate change is

certain and it is very likely that humans are to blame

which of the following gases has the greatest impact on global climate change?

carbon dioxide

which of the following activities have contributed the greatest amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere over the past 100 years?

increased reliance upon coal, oil, and natural gas

which one of the following best illustrates a type of mitigation in response to global climate change?

constructing and using wind turbines to generate electricity

which one of the following best illustrates a type of adaptation to global climate change?

building taller levees to hold back storm surges along ocean coastlines

which of the following illustrates a risk assessment of climate system change?

measuring levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

using ice core samples and analyses, researchers have discovered that over the past 800,000 years

there is a strong correlation between global temperatures and greenhouse gases.

London is located farther north than toronto, yet average temperatures in January are higher in London than toronto. london tends to be warmer in January because

warm ocean currents come past london

when an automobile heats up in bright sunlight with windows rolled up, the glass in the car functions most like

carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

which of the following has the highest albedo?

snow on top of ice on a pond

which on of the following has been declining globally over the past several decades?

pH of the worlds oceans

the most effective way to reduce GHG emissions is to increase

energy efficiency and renewable energy

Discussing the consequences of global climate change at a conference, representatives of a developing nation suggest that those nations that contribute the most greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere should contribute the most to paying for adaptive responses worldwide. Further, this representative pointed out that her poor country contributes less than 1% of the annual GHGs and has less than 0.1% of the world's wealth. This representative's appeal represents

the polluter pays and equity principles.

The stabilization wedge approach attempts to

use multiple mitigation methods to stabilize carbon emissions at 2005 levels by 2055.

Which of the following illustrates an anthropogenic form of pollution?

sulfur dioxide released from a coal burning power plant

The abundant formation of hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere

removes many common pollutants from the troposphere.

Which one of the following would help the most to reduce levels of photochemical smog in a city that frequently experiences this problem?

reducing the number of automobiles that burn gasoline

Atmospheric nitrogen is converted to nitrogen oxides

when fossil fuels are burned at high combustion temperatures.

Secondary air pollutants are formed by

primary pollutants reacting with other compounds in the atmosphere.

The 1970 Clean Air Act and subsequent environmental regulations have resulted in

reductions in lead by about 99%.

Acid rain concentrated in the eastern portions of the United States is primarily the result of

coal-burning power plants in the Midwest.

Which of the following is a secondary pollutant in the troposphere but beneficial component in the stratosphere?

ozone

Lakes that suffer from environmental acidification typically have

fewer animals and higher levels of heavy metals.

Which of the following is responsible for about half of all air pollution in the United States?

cars, trucks, and buses

Meeting higher CAFÉ standards in the United States will result in

better gas mileage and less air pollution.

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