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everything important

information processing cycle

series of input, process, output, storage and communication activities

data

ollection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video

hardware

A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components

Computer Literacy

as computers become more part of everyday life, it is more vital to success

Supercomputers

largest and most expensive types of computers

system unit

case that contains electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.

Computers process

data into information

program

set of step-by-step instructions that tell the computer how to do something

URL

Every web page has a unique address

Domain

text version of an IP address

ARPANET

The Internet has its roots in ____, a network that became functional in 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers across the United States.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

oversees research and sets standards and guidelines for many areas of the Internet.

Social Networking

MySpace and Facebook are the two most popular _________ sites.

Top Level Domain

A web site's _______ gives the reader an idea as to the purpose of the site even without knowing anything about it initially.

ISP

There are both regional and national ______, which are more basic but more functional than services like America Online.

IP address

A(n) ____ address is a number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.

subject

On the Web, a(n) ____ directory classifies Web pages in an organized set of categories, such as sports or shopping, and related subcategories.

Powerpoint

Widely used Web browsers for personal computers include all of the following EXCEPT

Printer and monitor

All of the following are widely used input devices EXCEPT the _____.

Application Software

____ software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks, and include Web browser, word processing software, and spreadsheet software.

scanner

Each of the following is a commonly used output device EXCEPT _____.

Custom Software

____ performs functions specific to a business or industry.

Machine Cycle

Together, four operations (fetching, decoding, executing, and storing) comprise a(n) ____ cycle.

Software Suites

Two of the more commonly used ____ are Microsoft Office and Sun StarOffice.

Window

A(n) ____ is a rectangular area of the screen that displays data and information.

Freeware

____ is copyrighted software provided at no cost to a user by an individual or a company.

Unicode

____ is a coding scheme capable of representing almost all of the world's current written languages, as well as classic and historical languages.

Nonvolatile

____ memory does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer.

Binary code

The ____ system is a number system that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits.

Shareware

____ is copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period.

heat pipe

Because a heat sink consumes a lot of space, a smaller device called a heat ____ cools processors in notebook computers.

Public-domain software

____ is free software, but it has been donated for public use and has no copyright restrictions.

Pipelining

With ____, the processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction.

RAM

____ is the most common type of volatile memory.

dialog box

A ____ is a special window that provides information, presents available options, or requests a response.

Packaged Software

____ is mass-produced, copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a variety of users, not just a single user or company.

byte

A(n) ____ is the basic storage unit in memory and is made up of eight binary digits.

Business Software

____ includes programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation graphics, personal information manager software, PDA business software, software suites, accounting, and project management.

ASCII

____ is the most widely used coding scheme used to represent data most appropriate for the English language.

Icon

A(n) ____ is a small image displayed on the screen that represents a program, a document, or some other object.

input

What is any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer?

Input device

What is a hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a computer?

Ergonomics

What is the science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace?

Video Conference

What is is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people?

Turnaround document

What is a document, like a bill statement, you return to the company that creates and sends it?

Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)

What kind of technology reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles? (Ex: Scantron)

RFID

What input technology uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object?

magnetic ink recognition

What type of devices read text printed with magnetized ink and are used by the banking industry?

Biometrics

What input technology authenticates a person's identity by verifying a personal characteristic?

Resolution

What term refers to the number of horizontal and vertical pictures in a display device?

Output

What is data that has been processed into a useful form?

Output device

What is any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people?

Graphics Processing Unit

What kind of hardware controls the manipulation and display of graphics on a display device?

Hard Copy

What is another name for printed information?

Nonimpact

What kind of printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper?

Multifunction Peripheral

What is a single device that prints, scans, copies, and in some cases, faxes?

Plotters

What printers are used to produce high-quality drawings?

data projector

What is a device that takes the text and images displaying on a computer screen and projects them on a larger screen?

Interactive Whiteboard

What is a touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board, that displays the image on a connected computer screen?

Tactile

What kind of output provides the user with a physical response from the device?

Storage Medium

What is the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions and information?

Writing

What is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium?

Hard disk

What kind of device contains multiple inflexible platters, usually metal, that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions and information?

formatting

What is the process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors so data and information can be stored on it?

Head Crash

What is the error that occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a disk and causes irreparable damage?

Cloud Storage

What is an Internet service that provides storage to computer users to access from anywhere in the world with Internet access?

Optical Disk

CDs and DVDs are forms of what kind of media?

sequential access

Magnetic tape storage uses _____________, which means data and information is stored and accessed in chronological order.

Smart Card

What stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in a card?

Microfilm

According to manufacturers, which type of media has the longest potential life expectancy?

System

____ software, such as operating systems and utility programs, consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.

operating systems and utility programs

Two types of system software are ____.

the same on multiple operating systems

A cross-platform program is one that runs ____.

Booting

____ is the process of starting or restarting a computer.

Resident

The kernel is memory ____, which means it remains in memory while the computer is running.

Plug and play

____ means the operating system automatically configures new devices as users install them.

Proprietary

____ software is privately owned software and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.

Uninstaller

A(n) ____ is a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.

Firewall

A personal ____ is a utility that detects and protects a computer from unauthorized intrusions.

Virus

The term, computer ____, describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission.

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