Circulatory System, Immune System, Integumentary System, Endocrine System

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What are the structures/organs of the circulatory system? What is it's function?

Structures/organs: Heart, blood, blood vessels Functions: To transport minerals from the digestive and the respiratory systems to the cells.

What makes up your blood?

Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

What is plasma?

Makes up 60% of blood; contains water (90%), proteins, glucose, and hormones

What do red blood cells do?

Carry oxygen from lungs to cells

What do white blood cells do?

Help the body fight infection by attacking disease causing organisms.

What are platelets?

Cell fragments that help form blood clots when a vessel is injured.

How does the blood travel through the body?

Oxygen-rich blood leaves left atrium, travels through arteries to capillaries which deliver oxygen to cells. Oxygen-poor blood exits capillaries into the veins, then travels to the right atrium and is pumped into the right ventricle. Right ventricle delivers oxygen-poor blood to lungs, where it picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide. Blood then returns to the heart to start over the process.

What structures/organs make up the immune system? What is it's function?

Structures/organs: Skin, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes, and white blood cells. Functions: to defend/protect body from infection.

How do pathogens enter your body?

They can enter through your skin, the air you breathe, and the foods or liquids that you drink.

What are 3 ways you can protect your skin?

1. Good nutrition 2. Appropriate coverings 3. Keeping the skin clean

How does the immune system respond when pathogens get into the body?

If it is a local injury, there is an inflammatory response. (swelling, redness, and heat) If it is a genral infection (when infection begins to spread) then the immune system reacts with: fever, lymph nodes produce lymphucytes to attack the invading organism.

What is active immunity?

When your body makes its own antibodies in response to being exposed to an organism.

What is passive immunity?

When you get antibodies from an outside source (mother to baby)

What are antibiotics?

Medicine that can block the growth and reproduction of bacteria.

What is a vaccine?

A small amount of a weakened or dead pathogen that is introduced into the body to stimulate the production of antibodies.

What are lymph nodes?

Small, round structures that trap pathogens and produce/store white blood cells and antibodies.

What are the structures/organs of the Integumentary system? What is its functions?

Structures/organs: skin, hair, and nails. Functions: repels water, barrier to infection, helps maintain homeostasis, and senses the environment.

How does the skin help the body maintain homeostasis?

The skin helps maintain temperature by sweating to cool the body.

What are the structures/organs of the Endocrine system? What is its function?

Structures/organs: glands Function: helps regulate conditions in your body by making chemical hormones.

What are the structures in the endocrine system that produce hormones?

Pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal, and pancreas

What is the pineal gland?

pea-sized, located in brain, hormones essential to sleep and body temperature.

What is the hypothalamus?

Attached to pituitary gland; primary connection between endocrine and nervous systems.

What is the pituitary gland?

Pea-sized, located at base of brain, directs endocrine system, responsible for growth and development.

What is the thyroid?

In the neck; controls growth, metabolism, and regulation of calcium.

What is the adrenal?

Located on top of kidneys; regulates carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism, controls water and salt levels, fights allergies, and produces adrenaline.

What is the pancreas?

Produces insulin and glycogen; regulates levels of glucose.

What are hormones ,and what do they do?

They are chemicals made in one organ, then travel through the blood, and produce an effect on target cells.

How does the circulatory system interact with other systems?

Works with respiratory by delivering oxygen to cells.

How does the endocrine system interact with other systems?

Works with nervous system to regulate sleep.

How does the immune system interact with other systems?

Works with integumentary to protect body from infection.

How does the integumentary system interact with other systems?

Works with immune system as skin works to protect the body.

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