excretion, elimination, regulation of water balance and ph
What are the three funcitons of the urinary system?
The filtering/removal of waste from the blood.
The removal of waste from the body.
Organs that filter blood and remove waste from the body.
ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
What three structures make up the urinary tract?
Tubes extending from the kidneys to the urinary bladder allowing for the transport of urine.
Muscular sac designed for the collection and storage of urine.
Tube through which urine exits the body.
The process of eliminating urine.
Another word for urination (the process of eliminating urine).
Outer part of the kidney
Inner part of the kidney
Structures in the kidney that contain nephrons
minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
The urine collecting system in the kidneys consists of these three structures.
Urine from the renal pyramids empty into this collecting area.
Urine from the minor calices empty into this collecting area.
Urine from the major calices empty into this collecting area.
Microscopic filters that remove wastes from the blood to produce urine.
Collection of capillaries within the nephron where blood is filtered and waste is pushed out.
Surrounds the glomerulus catching waste that is filtered out of the blood.
proximal convoluted tubule
Waste from Bowman's capsule enters into this.
loop of henle
This structure connects the proximal and distal convoluted tubules.
Waste from the distal convoluted tubules collect here and travel through the renal pyramid to the calices.
glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, renal pyramid, minor calices, major calices, renal pelvis, ureters
Starting with the glomerulus, in what order does waste exit the kidney?
renal artery, segmental arteries, interlobular arteries, arcuate arteries, cortical-radiate arteries, afferent arteries
In what order does blood flow into the kidney to the nephron?
peritubular capillaries, cortical-radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobular veins, segmental veins, renal veins
In what order does blood flow away from the nephron and out of the kidney?
Process of filtering blood in the nephron.
Process where, as filtered fluid moves along nephron, useful substances are reabsorbed and returned to blood
Whatever substances are not reabsorbed become _________.
Everything in plasma is filtered except __________.
water, nutrients, wastes
What three substances are filtered in the nephron?
net filtration pressure
Glomerular filtration is governed by ___________.
Net filtration is most importantly determined by which type of pressure?
When you have a _______ filtration pressure, nephron pushes out items that shouldn't be filtered like proteins.
When you have a ________ filtration pressure, the nephron does not filter out waste.
proximal convoluted tubule
Major area of reabsorption in the nephron.
The proximal convoluted tubule mostly absorbs ________ and _______.
The distal convoluted tubule is a major area of reabsorption for this mineral.
The proximal convoluted tubule absorbs _________ percent of glucose.
The proximal convoluted tubule absorbs 100% of this nutrient.
A healthy adult produces ______mL of urine per day.
pale, deep yellow
The color of urine is _______ to ________.
The transparency of urine should be _________.
Urine should smell ____________ when fresh.
The pH of urine should be ____________.
The density of urine is otherwise known as _________.
The specific gravity of urine should be _______ to _______.
Urine should have _________ bacterial content.
The ureters force urine toward bladder every _____ seconds.
Lines the urinary bladder and has rugae that disappear as the bladder fills.
Muscle in the bladder that expands as urine enters and contracts to push urine out.
Part of bladder where the ureters and neck of bladder meet.
external urethral sphincter
Circular band of skeletal muscle that controls the flow of urine out of the urethra; we voluntarily relax this to allow urine to flow out
When the bladder fills, it stimulates this reflex to empty the bladder.
When the bladder fills to _______ mL, it triggers the micturition reflex.
__________ in the urinary bladder stimulate contraction of detrusor muscle to push urine out.
Stretch receptors in urinary bladder stimulate contraction of _________ to push urine out.