________s, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon and hydrogen linked together exclusively by single bonds.
A ________, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond.
A ________ is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group
A ________ is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group.
________ in chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom connected by a covalent bond. When the oxygen atom is linked to a larger molecule the hydroxyl group is a functional group.
________ is a four-carbon alkyl substituent derived from either of the two isomers of the alkane called butane.
Traditionally known as acetylenes or the acetylene series, the ________s are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms.
________ involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules.
The term ________ is used to describe an object that is non-superimposable on its mirror image.
________-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups typically around double bonds which cannot rotate.
________ effects arise from the fact that if atoms are brought too close together, there is an associated cost in energy due to overlapping electron clouds.
________s are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other.
A ________ mixture is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Optical rotation or optical ________ is the rotation of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
A ________ compound is a chemical compound with molecules that contain 2 or more stereocenters but which is optically achiral because it contains an internal plane of symmetry.
A ________ projection visualizes chemical conformations of a carbon-carbon chemical bond from front to back, with the front carbon represented by a dot and the back carbon as a circle.
A ________ conformation is a chemical conformation that exists in any open chain single chemical bond connecting two sp3 hybridised atoms as a conformational energy minimum.
A ________ conformation is a chemical conformation that exists in any open chain single chemical bond connecting two sp3 hybridised atoms as a conformational energy maximum.
A ________ is any atom in a molecule bearing groups such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a stereoisomer.
________ isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism involving molecules with the same structural formula existing as different conformers due to atoms rotating about a bond.
Van der Waals ________ results from van der Waals repulsion when two substituents in a molecule approach each other with a distance less than the sum of their van der Waals radii.
________ refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled from a mass of water
________ refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water through hydrogen bonding.
________ is a term in chemistry that refers to the property of liquids to mix, forming a homogeneous solution.
________ refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
________ compounds are organic compounds in which carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains or in rings, that can be either saturated or unsaturated, but not aromatic.
________ is a measure of the speed at which a substance turns into a vapor from a solid or liquid state.
________ organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere.
________ is a term describing a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A ________ or distribution coefficient is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in the two phases of a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium.
A ________ solvent is a solvent that carries a hydrogen bond between an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group.
Liquid-liquid or solvent ________, also known as partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent.
________ is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption.
Relative ________ is a measure of the vapor pressure differences of the components in a liquid mixture of chemicals.
________s are amphiphilic molecules that have hydrophilic groups at both ends of a sufficiently long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain.
________ is a term which literally means fat rejection and describes compounds which are not soluble in lipids or other non-polar solvents.
________-Huggins solution theory is a mathematical model of the thermodynamics of polymer solutions which takes account of the great dissimilarity in molecular sizes in adapting the usual expression for the entropy of mixing.
A material is called ________ if it forms liquid crystal phases because of the addition of a solvent.
________ acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.
________s are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. Structurally they resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl and aryl groups.
Has four groups bonded to it; R side chain, amino group, carboxyl group, and hydrogen , refers to the first carbon that attaches to a functional group
describes the exact spatial arrangement of groups of atoms independent of other molecules.
all peaks are assigned abundances as percentages of the base peak. abundance of 10 means that peak is 10% as high as the base peak
R-CO-Cl, inorganic acid chlorides like SOCl₂, PCl₃, and PCl₅ each react with carboxylic acids by nucleophlic substitution to form ____ _____.
are Bronsted-Lowry acids.
R-C=O-H , Carbon atom of the carbonyl group is bonded to another carbon and one hydrogen atom
-always results in beta hydroxy carbonyl group
-requires the presence of alpha hydrogens , What is the name of the reaction of two aldehydes or an aldehyde and a ketone?
4) Glycine (Only non-chiral AA)
a salt formed by replacing the hydroxyl ion of an alcohol with a metal, a compound derived from an alcohol and containing a metal atom bonded to an oxygen atom
if an alcohol is used instead of water in the creation of an alcohol from a alkene the process is known as alkoxy
groups of atoms that form when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule; alkanes with a hydrogen atom removed
...organic compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. Structurally _______resemble ammonia in that the nitrogen can bond up to three hydrogens, but ________also have additional properties based on their carbon connectivity.
oxides that contain no water, Consisting of an internal Oxygen in between two Carbons each with a double bond to another Oxygen: -(C=O)-O-(C=O)
monosaccharides differing only in their configuration at the hemiacetal/hemiketal carbon in a pyranose ring (can be alpha or beta)
An addition reaction in which the two added substituents add to opposite sides of the molecule
the acid or electrophile(Br-) adds to the least subsituted carbon while the hydrogen adds to the carbon with most hydrogens
a closed chain of 6 carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached , consists of 5 or 6 carbons joined together in a cyclic structure with alternating double and single bonds
Hydrogens whose bonds lie approximately perpendicular to the plane of a cycloalkane ring
rule that the most substitituted alkene is the major product, in the dehydration of an alcohol, hydrogen is removed from the carbon that already has the smaller number of hydrogen atoms to form an alkene
an elimination in which the two atoms lost are a hydrogen atom and a halogen atom
because acetals and ketals are unreactive towards bases, they are often used as _____ ______
3 >2> 1> +CH3 More carbons nearby =more stable, Carbocations are classifided by the number of R gourps bonded to the charged carbon atom: Primary (1), Secondary (2), tertiary (3).
As the number of R groups increases, carboncation stability increases.
Carbocation stability is determined by inductive effects and hyperconjugation effects.
the difference between the position of absorption of TMS and that of a particular proton.
an atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image, carbon atom bonded to four different groups
A property of a compound to exist in both left and right forms; occurs whenever a compound contains an asymmetric carbon
A physical process used to determine what type of substances have been mixed together
Fill a buret and filter your mixture through particles in the buret into a beaker
stereoisomers that differ by rotation about one or more single bonds, usually represented using newmman projections.
structures that differ only by rotations about single bonds. introvert at room temperature; thus, they are not different compounds and not true isomers
occurs when there is a weak base and a carbonyl group; this is where equilibrium goes towards.
are strain free due to reduction in eclipsing interactions and the chair/boat conformations; each carbon in this is bonded to a hydrogen in teh axial position and another in teh equatorial position; axial hydrogens alternate their position (up and down) across an imaginary internal plane for each adjacent carbon
the process of removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound (usually replacing it with hydrogen)
the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal and are not attached to a particular atom
Product of the amount of partial charge at either end of a molecule's dipole multiplied by the distance between them, given equation "p=qd". P is the dipole moment, q is the partial charge, and d is the distance separating the dipole
Lipids that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.
tend to increase shielding and increase the required field strength for resonance., activate the ring and direct any substituents to the ortho and para positions, includes the groups: -O, -OH, -NR2, -OR, -R
electron donating groups
the reduction of the attractive force between a positively charged nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the cancellation of some of the positive charge by the negative charges of the inner electrons
in the R position, deactivates the ring and directs new subtituents to the meta position, Strong: NO₂, Halogens
Moderate: Carbonyls (Ketone, Aldehyde, Ester, C.A.), Nitrile, Sulfonate
electron withdrawing group
A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
the ratio of pure enantiomer to racemic mixture. optical purity equals ___ ____ for any mixture of enantiomers
either one of a pair of compounds (crystals or molecules) that are mirror images on each other but are not identical
Can change from one polymorphism form to another and is reversible by varying temperature and pressure
- a resonance-stabilized carbanion
- negatively charged & nucleophilic
note: strong base
Isomers that differ in configuration at only one of several chiral centers, Monosaccharides which differ in configuration about a single ANOMERIC carbon
formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water, contains an internal O=C-O- group
the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means
Charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatmic ion, calculated by (# valence electrons) - (# 1/2 bonding electrons) - (# nonbonding electrons). Molecules containing atoms with lower formal charges tend to be more stable than those with higher formal charges.
Uses a machine that vaporizes a liquid to a gas then passes through coils and the speed with which it moves lets you know its molecular weight
a compound containing a halogen atom and a hydroxyl group on adjacent carbons; those containing Br and OH are bromohydrins, and those containing Cl and OH are chlorohydrins
an organic compound usually formed as an intermediate product in the preparation of acetals from aldehydes or ketones
Anti-markovnikov addition, syn addition, replacement of BR2 with other functionalities, quasicyclic intermediate
the number of pairs of hydrogens a compound requires in order to become a saturated alkane
index of hydrogen deficiency
when a very polar molecule comes in contact with a nonpolar molecule, it can cause the nonpolar molecule to become a temporary dipole.
measures molecular vibrations that can be seen as bond stretching, bending, or combinations.
line drawn above the peaks that rises each time it goes over a peak. the rise of the ___ ____ is in proportion to the number of chemically equivalent hydrogens in the peak beneath it
The atom or group of atoms that leave during a substitution or elimination; these are usually stable atoms, weak bases.
a molecule must have this to be able to be studied using NMR. common nuclei are H, C, F O N P
A species that tends to donate electrons to another atom. They are attracted to positive charge, a nucleus, (protons and neutrons). In protic solvents and situations with different attacking atoms, its strength correlates to size. In aprotic solvents with the same attacking atom, its strength corresponds to basicity.
A type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
the number of degrees through which a compound rotates the plane of polarized light
the specific rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifec rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance.
The addition of water to alkenes. This gives the markovnikov addition product of an alcohol (-OH attached to the more highly substituted carbon, H to the less substituted carbon). Uses Hg[OAc] in THF solvent. This forms a mercurinium ion. Then the nucleophilic addition of H2O forms a organomercury compound. Last the addition of NaBH4 removes the mercury leaving an alcohol. If added to a unsymetrical alkene it gives syn-sterochemestry. Meaning both boron and hydrogen add to the same face of the double bond.
cleaves double bond in half, it only oxidizes the carbon to an aldehyde under reducing conditions. if ozidizing make same product as KMNO4
A solvent that is not a proton donor. An aprotic molecule does not bear a transferable proton.
A solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group.
refers to a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom. For our purposes that electronegative atom is almost exclusively oxygen or nitrogen. Will cause an Sn1 reaction.
polar protic solvent
good solvents for Sn2 reactions because they allow the nucleophile to dissolve without solvating it (forming hydrogens bonds that require energy to break when acting as a nucleophile) (DMF)
polar aprotic solvent
hormonelike modified fatty acid produced by a wide range of cells; generally affects only nearby cells and tissues
A mixture that contains equal amounts of the (+) and (-) enantiomers. Racemic mixtures are not optically active.
In chemistry, a mixture that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. (no optical activity)
the slowest elementary step which is the limit for the rate of the other steps
rate determining step
relative front; number used to determine which pigment has been separated on the paper by dividing the movement of the pigment by the movement of the solvent.
difference in energy btwn a resonance hybrid and the most stable of its hypothetical contributing structures
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)
The condensation of an amine with a carbonyl forms this. It acts as an electron sink that stabilizes negative charge on the adjacent carbon.
The mechanism that forms a carbocation in the rate-determining step is the _____ mechanism., tertiary halogenoalkanes react in this method; first the halogen breaks off then the nucleophile attaches onto the positively charged carbon
Primary halogenoalkanes follow the _______ mechanism of nucleophilic substitution., The mechanism that forms a transition state with a high activation energy is the _____ mechanism.
a nucleophilic substitution or elimination where the solvent serves as the attacking reagent. literally means "cleavage by the solvent"
The rotation of plane-polarized light induced by a solution of a molecule of concentration 1 g/mL in a tube 10 cm long.
An interaction in which nuclear spins of adj. atoms influence each other and lead to the splitting of NMR signals.
spin spin coupling
when non-equivalent hydrogens are not separated by at least one carbon or oxygen atom this happens
spin spin splitting
Addition reaction in which the two added substituents add to the same side of the molecule
obtained by passing ultraviolet light through a sample and absorbance is plotted against wavelength. the absorbance is caused by electronic transition between orbitals
procedure to analyze a mixture by seperating constituents based on selective adsorbtion based on polarity differences
The two-electron bond, which is illustrated
by the carbon-hydrogen bonds in methane or ethane and the carbon-carbon
bond in ethane, is called a
A process carried out on petroleum distillates at high temperature and pressure, ________ yields lower carbon number product, probably by means of a radical (homeolytic) mechanism. The thermodynamics are dominated by the entropy change rather than the enthalpy change, especially if the volume is kept constant.
Thermal Cracking - Pyrolysis
Because of the relative stability of alkyl radical intermediates, selectivity in free radical halogenation favors tertiary over secondary over primary carbon radicals. Bromination, though, is more selective than chlorination, because the proton extraction step is more endothermic in bromination than chlorination. This follows from Hammond's postulate, which governs the correlation between proximity in energy and proximity in structure among transition states and intermediates. Halogenation is the classic illustration of Hammond's postulate. Because the activated complex prior to formation of the alkyl radical intermediate must have more radical character for bromination compared to chlorination, the effect of substitution in stabilizing radicals plays a greater roll with bromination leading to a higher degree of regioselectivity.
Free Radical Halogenation
are the simplest and least reactive hydrocarbon species containing only carbons and hydrogens. They are commercially very important, being the principal constituent of gasoline and lubricating oils and are extensively employed in organic chemistry;
Alkanes The distinguishing feature of an alkane, making it distinct from other compounds that also exclusively contain carbon and hydrogen, is its lack of unsaturation. That is to say, it contains no double or triple bonds, which are highly reactive in organic chemistry.
also called conformational isomers, or rotational isomers, are arrangements of the same molecule made transiently different by the rotation in space about one or more single bonds.
Other types of isomer can only be converted from one form to another by breaking bonds, but conformational isomers can be made simply by rotating bonds.
drawings used to represent different positions of parts of molecules relative to each other in space. Remember that single bonds can rotate in space if not impeded. _______represent different positions of rotating molecule parts.
Different conformations have different potential energies. The staggered conformation is
at a lower potential energy than the eclipsed conformation, and is favored. In ethane, the barrier to rotation is approximately 25 kJ/mol, indicating that each pair of eclipsed hydrogens raises the energy by about 8 kJ/mol. This number also applies to other organic compounds which have hydrogen atoms at similar distances from each other. At very low temperatures all conformations revert to the stabler, lower energy staggered conformation.
have to do with size. Two bulky objects run into each other and invade each others space. If we replace one or more hydrogen atoms on the above Newman projections with a methyl or other group, the potential energy goes up especially for the eclipsed conformations.
represented as a ΔS, is a mathematical construct that represents disorder or probability. Natural systems want to find the lowest energy or organization possible, which translates to the highest __________.
Alkanes react only very poorly with
ionic or other polar substances. The pKa values of all alkanes are above 50, and so they are practically inert to acids and bases.
are isomers which have the same pattern of bonding but with atoms arranged differently in space.
Stereoisomers are also known as geometric isomers but confusingly this latter term is often used to refer only to
two isomers which are mirror images of each other; also known as optical isomers due to the fact that two ___________will rotate plane-polarized light in equal, but opposite directions. Chirality is (yet) another term for .
Stereoisomerism can be caused by:
if a carbon atom has four different groups attached to it, it will exhibit enantiomerism. Other causes of enantiomerism include helical structures.
Non-rotation of bonds
the C=C bond cannot rotate and is the most common cause of diastereomerism. Other causes are cyclic compounds and steric hindrance.
is the set of possible shapes a molecule can have by means of rotation about single bonds only.
is the relative position of the atoms in a molecule that can be changed exclusively by cleaving and forming new chemical bonds.
is the property of handedness. An object that is ________is an object that can not be superimposed on its mirror image.________ objects don't have a plane of symmetry.
Diastereomers seldom have the same physical properties. Sometimes, the stereocentres are themselves symmetrical. This causes the counterintuitive situation where two chiral centres may be present but no isomers result. Such compounds are called
It is the symmetry of a molecule (or any other object) that determines whether it is chiral or not. Technically, a molecule is achiral (not chiral) if and only if
it has an axis of improper rotation; that is, an n-fold rotation (rotation by 360°/n) followed by a reflection in the plane perpendicular to this axis which maps the molecule onto itself.
There are 3 main conformations of Cyclohexane
the chair, the reverse chair and the boat. The chair conformations have no angular, torsional or steric strain. However the boat conformation does have steric strain, as the hydrogens at the high points on the front and back of the boat are slightly overlapping.
Different conformations of cyclohexane can react differently for certain reactions. For example, the E2 elimination reaction requires
that a halogen atom and a hydrogen atom be on adjacent carbons and coplanar from each other, or 180° (anti). In cyclohexanes with multiple substituents attached to its carbons, it's possible for the hydrogen and halogen to be on adjacent carbons, but never be coplanar, thus preventing the reaction from occurring.
When two similar aldehydes are reacted with each other,a product having both aldehyde(>C=O) and alcohol(OH) group is formed.This reaction is called aldol reaction.
Hydrocarbon containing two carbonyl groups.Acyl group attached with carboxylate group.eg- RCOOCOR'
Acyl group with any halogen attached with carbon of carbonyl group.eg.- RCO-X(X=F,Cl,Br,I).
Any group which activate any molecule by increasing positive or negative charge on carbon atom.Mainly towards neucleophilic or electrophilic substitution reactions.
The energy required to reactants to cross energy barrier to undergo any chemical change.denoted by Ea.
A catalyst for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis in organic synthesis. Also known as platinum dioxide
The conjugate base of an alcohol without the terminal H atom. For any alcohol R-OH, the corresponding alkoxide form is R-O-.
A chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone.
Dutt-Wormall reaction in which a diazonium salt reacts with a sulfonamide first to a diazoaminosulfinate and then on hydrolysis the azide and a sulfinic acid.
- A second order reaction where the concentration of two compounds determine the reaction rate.
A rule for assigning priorities to substituents off of carbon in a double-bond or in a chiral center.
- A system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and multiple (e.g. double) bonds (e.g., C=C-C=C-C).
The ability of electrons to spread out among pi bonds to provide stabilization to electronically unstable areas of a molecule.
A term used to describe the left direction on NMR charts. A peak to the left of another peak is described as being downfield from the peak.
Literally, electron lover. A positively or neutrally charged reagent that forms bonds by accepting electrons from a nucleophile. Elecrophiles are Lewis Acids.
An inorganic or organic acid in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.
An organic compound which contains an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R-O-R'.
A reaction whose rate is determined by the concentration of only one of its reactants leading to a reaction rate equation of Rate = k[X]
First order reaction
Where bond breaks leaving each atom with one of the bonding electrons, producing two radicals.
A chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group.
A reaction adding BH3 or B2H6 or an alkylborane to an alkene to produce intermediate products consisting of 3 alkyl groups attached to a boron atom. This molecule is then used in other reactions, for example, to create an alcohol by reacting it with H2O2 in a basic solution.
A chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidizing it.
The functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms, or a chemical compound that contains a carbonyl group
propylenes attached to a backbone at the C-3 position. Meaning the double bond at end of the chain and single bonded carbon at rest
y = position of double bond, x is position of triple bond, root is the prefix representing the length of the principal carbon chain
always receive number one. contain carbonyl and OH group, very oxidized. highest priority functional group.
nitrogen containing compound, longest chain attached to nitrogen used in backbone. use e and replace with AMINE. if more complex molecule present, use prefix amino. IF additional group added, use N-
same chemical formula. same atomic connectivity . different in how atoms are arranged in space
differ in position of substitutents attached to a double bond or cycloalkane. Cis or trans or e or z
three different substitutents often have plane of symmetry. and rotation of 180 will allow molecule to be superimposed on mirror image
configuration in relation to another chiral molecule. use it to determine if a molecule is an enantiomer, diastereomer, etc
describes the exact spatial arrangement of groups of atoms independent of other molecules.
moleculse that have the opposite configuration at their one chiral center. or if multiple chiral centers, must have the opposite configuration at every one of their chiral centers to be enantiomers. identical physical properties and much of the same chemical properties. but differe in optical activity and how they react in a chiral environment
non mirror image of configurational isomers. cis and trans alkenes are them. possible when a molecule has two or more stereogenic centers that differ at some but not alll of the centers. they require multiple chiral centers.
most similar. same molecule only at different points in their rotation. show them with newmans projections
results when cyclic molecules must assume conformations that have eclipsed interactions
results when nonadjacent atoms or groups compete for space. dominant source of energy in flagpole interactions of the boat conformation. thus it goes in various conformations like chair boat and twist.
when two atomic orbitals combine. obtained mathematically by adding or subtracting wave functions. if sings are the same, make bonding, if different, less stable antibonding.
when a molecular orbital is formed head to head or tail to tail. all single bonds are tehese.
when two p orbitals line up in parallel and electron clouds overlap. it exsits over a single bond.
in which one or morehydrogen atoms are replaced with a halogen atom. via free radical substitution
occur when a molecule is broken down by heat. used to reduce the avverage molecular weight of heavy oils. c-c- bonds are cleave dand make small chain alkyl radicals that recombine to form different alkanes
a radical transfers a hydrogen atom to another radical and makes an alkane and alkene
combustion, disproportionation, free-radical substitution, pyrolysis
alphabetical order of alkane rxn
more likely it is to attract positively charged proton. nucleophilic strength decreses: RO->HO>RCO2>ROH>H2O
solvents with protons in solution, e.g. water or alcohol. large atoms tend to be better nucleophiles in here because they can shed the solvating protons around them and are more polarizable
reducing an alkene by adding molecular hydrogen to double bond with aid of metal catalyst. e.g. pt, pd, ni. takes place on surface of metal so it does syn addition
electrons of pi bond are reactive and easily attacked by molecules that want e pair e.g. electrophiles.
electrophilic addition of HX
e of double bond act as lewis base and react with hydrogen of hx. make carbocation intermediate. use markonikovs rule
electrophilic addition of X2
fast process. double bond is nucleophile and attack x2. make cyclic halonium ion with either br or cl. and make dihalo trans
electrophilic addition of H2O
water can be added to alkenes under acidic conditions. make carbocation. ends with alcohol
electrophilic addition of free radicals
in presence of peroxide, oxygen or ultraviolet light. antimarkonikov because they want a stable free radical. therefore X ends up on least subsituted carbon
diborane add to double bond. boron acts as lewis acid and attaches to less hindered carbon. hydride transferred to adjacent carbon. antimarkonikov, alcohol produced
cold potassium permanganate
alkenes oxidzed with kmno4, if made with cold, dilue, make OH on each side of double bond, diols or glycol in syn orientation
hot, acidic potassium permanganate
nonterminal alkenes are cleaved to form two molar equivalent of carvoxylic acid ..make keton
cleaves double bond in half, it only oxidizes the carbon to an aldehyde under reducing conditions. if ozidizing make same product as KMNO4
alkene oxidized with this, strong oxidizing agent. CH3CO3H or mcpba and it makes epoxide or oxirane
creation of long, high molecular weight polymer composed of repeating subunit called monomers. occur through a radical mechanism.