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combo of terms

ionic

The _____ bond forms when electrons transfer completely from one atom to another, resulting in oppositely charged species that attract each other via electrostatic interaction.

joule

work and energy have the same unit; the _ _ _ _ _

U=kq1q2/r

formula for electric potential energy

coulomb's constant

k, is the symbol for the electrostatic constant, also known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

electric potential energy

U is the symbol for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ , which is the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field

anion negative

In an ionic bond, if Q represents a cation, q represents the charge on the _ _ _ _ _, and it is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

negative (sign on q is negative in an ionic bond)

The electrostatic potential energy in an ionic bond is positive or negative? (Why?)

T

T or F With electrostatic energy, the negative sign is frequently dropped and only the magnitude of the electrostatic energy is used.

stronger

The greater the magnitude of electrostatic potential, the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the ionic bond.

weaker

If r is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?

stronger

If Q or q is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?

weaker

If Q or q is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?

stronger

If r is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?

Lattice Energy

the energy required to separate 1 mol of the ions of an ionic compound; it is equal in magnitude to the negative energy in the ionic bonds

Coulomb's Law

The electric force between charged objects is given by ________+_________, and depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.

F=kq1q2/r^2

Coulomb's Law

1.6x10^-19 coulombs

This is the magnitude of the charges on a proton and an electron plus the unit

Electrostatic Force

This is the name of the force particles exert on each other because of their electric charge; given by Coulomb's Law

9x10^9

The value of Coulomb's constant, k, is ________

Coulomb's Law

F=kq1q2/r^2

electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.

Law of Gravitation

F=Gm1m2/r^2

(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

k>G

F=Gm1m2/r^2
F=kq1q2/r^2

gravitational force is weaker compared to the much stronger electrostatic force because _ is larger than _

Newton's second law

f=ma, A net force acting on an object will cause that object to accelerate in the direction of the net force.

Newton's first law (law of inertia)

An object in motion (or at rest) will tend to stay in motion (or at rest) until it is acted upon by an outside force.

Law of Inertia

The other name for Newton's first law

Newton's Third Law

Every action has an equal and opposite reaction

Newton's Third Law

Which law applies to propulsion and explains why rockets work even in the vacuum of space.

it doubles

What happens to electrostatic force if you double q1?

it quadruples

What happens to electrostatic force if r is cut in half?

covalent bond

(chemistry) This bond results when there is a sharing of electrons between two atoms, resulting in the overlap of their electron orbitals.

σ bond

type of bond where electron density is in the same plane as the bond. Constitutes a single bond

π bond

The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of orbitals

T

T or F It does not matter what shapes the orbitals have or what types they are. They can be s orbitals or p orbitals or hybrid orbitals. What makes each of these a sigma bond is that the orbital overlap occurs directly between the nuclei of the atoms.

sp3

hybridization?

sp

hybridization?

sp2

hybridization?

F

T or F? An sp3 hybridized carbon is a triple bond?

4

Number of hybrid orbitals in sp3?

2

Number of hybrid orbitals in sp?

3

Number of hybrid orbitals in sp2?

3

Number of atoms bonded to sp2 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)

2

Number of atoms bonded to sp carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)

4

Number of atoms bonded to sp3 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)

tetrahedral

shape of sp3 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)

linear

shape of sp hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)

trigonal planar

shape of sp2 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)

linear

all possible shapes of sp hybridized?

trigonal planar, bent

all possible shapes of sp2 hybridized?

tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, bent

all possible shapes of sp3 hybridized?

sp

Hybridization of the triple bond?

sigma

Are hybridized bonds sigma bonds? or pi bonds?

sp2

Hybridization of the double bond?

green

What color(s) are pi bonds?

yes, sp3

Is blue a hybridized orbital? If it is, what is the hybridization?

red, blue, green

What color(s) are sp hybridized orbitals?

orange, purple

what color(s) are pi bonds?

red, blue, green

what color(s) are sigma bonds?

5

how many of the bonds are sigma bonds?

object (inertia) action (sum of the forces) reaction (negative F)

Newton's mnemonic
1) o
2) a
3) r

lewis structure

a structure that uses electron-dots and dashes to show how electrons are arranged in molecules. Central atom is the least electronegative.

formal charge

The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure

ammonia

a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)

ammonium

the ion NH4 derived from ammonia

borane

a covalent hydride of boron

hydride

any binary compound formed by the union of hydrogen and other (generally less electronegative) elements

covalent hydride

a compound consisting of hydrogen and one other more electronegative element

borohydride

a compound containing the ion BH4−. Such compounds are mainly used as reducing agents in organic synthesis.

bromide

The name for an ion of Br- or for a chemical compound containing that ion.

carbanion

A compound containing a negatively charged carbon atom. A carbon-based anion.

carbocation

positive charge resides on C; highly reactive; occurs in SN1 and E1 reactions; electrophilic

imine

Compound with a carbon double-bonded to nitrogen (C=N).

methane

a colorless odorless gas used as a fuel

ozone

a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms

nonbonding electrons

(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds. Also called unshared pairs or lone pairs

bonding electrons

(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons that participate in bonding

dashes

(consider the bonds in the atom above) The bonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?

dots

(consider the bonds in the atom above) The nonbonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?

lewis acid (most inclusive definition)

Electron pair acceptor that may or may not donate a proton

lewis base (most inclusive definition)

Electron pair donor that may or may not accept a proton

arrhenius acid (most specific definition)

Electron pair acceptor & proton donor, that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water

arrhenius base (most specific definition)

Electron pair donor & proton acceptor that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water

bronsted lowry acid (intermediate definition)

Electron pair acceptor that is a proton donor

bronsted lowry base (intermediate definition)

Electron pair donor that is a proton acceptor

highest energy occupied molecular orbital

HOMO stands for

lowest energy unoccupied molecular orbital

LUMO stands for

HOMO

(Lewis Acids/Bases) Between HOMO and LUMO which is "filled" prior to the formation of the lewis complex?

coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

dipole moment

equation for?

F

T or F the dipole moment measures the swing of electrons back and forth between atoms

nonpolar (because dipole moment is the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments; which cancel in a tetrahedral molecule)

This molecule is polar or nonpolar? Why?

net dipole moment (the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments do not cancel so water is a polar molecule)

What does the "up arrow" stand for?

Yes (because the molecules are too far apart)

T or F Dipole Dipole interactions are negligible in the gas phase. Why or why not?

Dispersion Forces (London Forces)

What intermolecular forces exist between noble gas atoms?

van der Waals forces

the two weakest intermolecular attractions- dispersion interactions and dipole forces

intermolecular forces

the forces of attraction between molecules (general term)

ion-dipole interactions are not, dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces (london forces) are

What types of intermolecular forces are not van der Waals forces, what types are?

london forces, induced dipole interactions

The other 2 names for dispersion forces

orbits the nucleus

"_________________" decribes the behavior of the hydrogen electron in the Bohr model.

spherical probability cloud

"_________________" decribes the location of the hydrogen electron in quantum mechanics.

n

This is the symbol for the "principal quantum number"

m

This is the symbol for the "magnetic quantum number"

s

This is the symbol for the "spin quantum number"

l

This is the symbol for the "angular momentum quantum number"

l, m, n, s

These are the 4 letters that represent the 4 quantum numbers

m

This quantum number can be any integer between -L and +L

T

T or F, an integer includes 0?

K=2, L=8, M=18, N=32

these are the number of electrons held by the first 4 SHELLS
(1=?, 2=?, 3=?, 4=? ...but put the letter of the shell in place of the numbers)

principal quantum number

n is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"

magnetic quantum number

m is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"

spin quantum number

s is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"

angular momentum quantum number

l is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"

principal

The "_________________" quantum number defines what shell the electron is in

principal

The "_________________" quantum number describes the SIZE of the orbital

angular momentum

The "_________________" quantum number describes the SHAPE of the orbital

spin

The "_________________" quantum number describes the DIRECTION in which an electron spins

magnetic

The "_________________" quantum number describes an orbital's ORIENTATION in space

magnetic

The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number

principal

The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number

angular momentum

The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number

Orientation, m

what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?

Size, n

what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?

Shape, l

what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?

o

The electrons in the s subshell of this shell are highest in energy. (K, L, M, N, or O?)

n^2

The equation for the number orbitals per shell. (This is true for the 1st four shells only)

2

There are "_________________" electrons per orbital.

2n^2

The equation for electrons per shell

higher

Excited states are "_________________" in energy than ground states.

excited states

"_________________"

ground state

"_________________"

emission spectra

"_________________"

absorption spectrum

"_________________"

emission

This spectrum has a longer wavelength (absorption or emission)

s, p, d, f

These are the first four electron subshells

f

The image represents this subshell

p

The image represents this subshell

d

The image represents this subshell

s

The image represents this subshell

2

The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full

6

The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full

10

The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full

14

The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full

±L (orientation)

values of m (magnetic quantum number)

±1/2

values of s (spin quantum number)

1-7 (size)

_ - _ are the values of n (principal quantum number)

0-3 (shape)

_ - _ are the values of l (angular momentum quantum number)

1

The number of orbitals in this subshell

3

The number of orbitals in this subshell

5

The number of orbitals in this subshell

7

The number of orbitals in this subshell

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