Chapter 14: Personality

21 terms by matisakp

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Ohio State University Psychology 100

personality

people's typical way of thinking, feeling, and behaving

traits

relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations

nomothetic approach

focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals

idiographic approach

focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person

shared environmental factors

experiences making individuals within the family more alike

non-shared environmental factors

experiences making individuals within the family less alike

molecular genetics studies

allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific traits

psychoanalytic theory

Freud's theory that many mental disorders were produced by psychological rather than physiological factors

psychic determinism

the assumption that all psychological events have a cause

unconscious motivation

personality is caused more by the unconscious than the conscious

Id

reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression

pleasure principle

tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification

superego

our sense of morality

ego

psyche's executive and principal decision maker

reality principle

tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet

factor analysis

statistical technique that analyzes the correlation among responses on personality inventories and other measures

the big five

five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures; openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

lexical approach

approach proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language

basic tendencies

underlying personality traits

characteristics adaptions

behavioral manifestations of basic tendencies

cosmetic psychopharmacology

use of medications to produce long-term alterations in personality

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