Neanderthals (in general)
found in Asia and Europe (not Africa). they were adapted to cold environments: huge brains, large nasal aperture, large infra-orbital foramina (for increased blood flow), short limb bones and stockier build. barrel chest.
Did use fire and were successful hunters, but used no long distance weaponry short of spears.
Symbolic behavior: burial of the dead-afterlife concepts? aid rendered to old and handicapped- compassion.
hyoid- were capable of articulate speech, but not necessarily to the same level of Homo sapiens
Tabun, Israel, Asia
if dated correctly, proves Neanderthals were contemporary with modern Homo sapiens
Amud, Israel, Asia
eye orbits were small and round, lack of occipital bun, and small teeth - all modern characteristics, but did have wide nasal openings
Kebara, Israel, Asia
the barrel shaped chest tells us it was adapted for cold environments. also found a hyoid bone.
Shanidar, Iraq, Asia
wide nasal aperture and projecting face.
_____ 1 has worn incisors, making it difficult to eat, and damage to eye orbits, arthritis, and atrophy of the right humerus, but he did not die front these. Likely cared for by tribe/family/society. indicates compassion.
possible 70 individuals, Neanderthal morphology, largest intentional burial site on record.
cranial features: round eye orbits, wide space between the eyes, wide nasal aperture, protruding mid face.
dental features: back teeth decreased in size, front teeth increased in size.
location and pattern of cut marks on the bone suggest consumption of both animal and human tissue.
La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Europe
typical Neanderthal morphology, evidence of many healed injuries and arthritis. Evidence of intentional burial.
Flexed body position=care was taken in its burial
Moula-Guercy Cave, Europe
evidence of butchery and possible cannibalism. Cannibalism was a fall back, for survival when food was scarce or as a social ritual. There was an abundance of natural resources so it's unlike to be for survival. death was not caused by cut marks, likely to honor the dead.
St. Cesaire, France, Europe
a few different stone tool technologies present including ones associated with Homo Sapiens as well as Neanderthals