## Psych Unit 2

##### Created by:

jmdlove  on December 1, 2011

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# Psych Unit 2

 measures of central tendencydescribing average or most typical score in data set
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#### Definitions

measures of central tendency describing average or most typical score in data set
mean most sensitive to outliers
median middle of scores
score in ordered set with half above and half below
mode most frequently occurring number
frequency distributions orderly arrangements of scores that indicate how frequently each score/set of scores occur
normal/symmetrical bell shaped curve
mean, median, mode all in center (not the same but similar)
positively skewed mean pulled to right of median and mode
mean higher than median and mode
mode doesn't change a lot
mean changes a lot
negatively skewed mean pulled to left of median and mode
mean less than median and mode
mean changes a lot
mode doesn't change a lot
variability dispersion; describes spread of scores - set of data
range subtract highest and lowest scores
variance square root of the standard deviation
standard deviation how far scores fall from the mean
variance squared
normal bell curve:
-68% in 1 SD
-95% in 2 SD
-99% in 3 SD
z-scores relative position above or below mean
measure distance of score from mean in units of standard deviation
significance test used to come up with conclusions of the population based on the sample
use hypothesis testing
alternative/research in experiment the independent variable will have an effect on the experimental group
null in experiment the independent variable will have no effect on the experiment group
statistically significant decide if the groups were affect by treatment of chance
level of significance cutoff point
a place where you want to see your results be
3% or 5%
type 1 error reject null hypothesis
false positive
p-value: corresponds to level of significance
type 2 error accept null hypothesis
false negative
no difference between 2 groups
hindsight bias i knew it all along
view outcomes as predictable after they happen
overconfidence being more confident about knowledge than you are correct about it
overestimating accuracy of our beliefs, judgments
happens when we think we know more than we actually do
curiosity mental processes and behavior
curious skepticism proof of behavior and why its caused
humility willing to admit you are wrong
critical thinking smart thinking
includes looking at assumptions, evaluating evidence given, and assessing conclusions
scientific method observations
theroy
testable hypothesis
test hypothesis: cause-effect statement
operational definitions
operational definitions allow for replication of research
a statement of how you used or defined your variables
case study analyzing a small group or one person
useful for unusual, infrequent behaviors
thorough description of behavior
can't generalize findings
observer bais
no cause-effect statement
survey asking pre-determined questions to a preselected group
get lots of information
respondents may not be representative of targeted group
response bias
false-consensus effect
response bias people will lie to your face
false-concensus effect tend to overestimate how many people hold the same beliefs as you do
naturalistic observation studying behavior in natural environment
behaviors is spontaneous
get future study ideas
behavior may only occur one time
hawthorne/reactivity effect
observer bias
hawthorn/reactivity effect people act differently when they know they are being watched
correlation investigating and clarifying naturally occurring relationships between variables
no causation
2 variables related - 1 goes up and one goes down
least correlation 0
dots have no relationship
perfectly positive +1
both variables go up
perfectly negative -1
one variable goes up and the other goes down
illusory correlation perceiving relationship between variables when none exist
occurs because we want to make sense of the world
experimentation experimenter manipulates events and measures effects on behaviors
uses cause-effect statement
get subject through sampling
representative sample pick people that have similar characteristics to the group that you want to know about
stratified sample population divided into number of non-overlaping groups
random sampling used to get proportional number of people from each group
control group used to compare to experimental group
experimental group get the treatment
independent variable
double-blind procedure 3rd party comes in to assign subjects to groups
neither experimenter nor subjects know who's in what group
eliminates experimenter bias
single-blind procedure experimenter assigns people to groups so they don't know
eliminates demand characteristics
independent variable gets treatment
the one that is manipulated
cause something to happen
dependent variable outcome
measured
shows effects of independent variable
confounding variable anything else besides the independent variable that can have some sort of effect on the dependent variable

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