← AP Government & Politics Unit 4: Congress Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Bicameral Composed of two legislative bodies. Requirements for Representatives Must be at least 25, been a citizen for 7 years, and be a resident of the state that he or she wishes to represent. Requirements for Senators Must be at least 30 years old, have been a U.S. citizen for at least nine years at the time of election to the Senate, and a resident of the state one is elected to represent in the Senate. Apportionment Allotting seats in the House to each state following the census. Redistricting Redrawing state districts based on +/- seats, or population shifts. Baker vs. Carr "One Man = One Vote" 1. Each Congressional District mush have equal population in each district. Shaw v. Reno 1. Racial Gerrymandering is unconstitutional. Impeachment Process The House and Senate share in the impeachment process, however the house has the power to charge the president vice president, or other "civil officers," including federal judges.... the Senate tries the impeachment and determines whether the office holder loses his/her office. Formal powers specific to House House has the sole power to originate bills of revenue. Formal powers specific to Senate Only the senate can approve treaties with other countries. Speaker of the House The only officer of the House of Representatives specifically mentioned in the Constitution; elected at the beginning of each new Congress by the e the entire House; traditionally a member of the majority party. Majority Leader (House) The elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the House of Representatives; he/she is second in authority to the Speaker of the House. Minority Leader (House) The elected leader of the party with the second highest number of elected officials. Majority Whip (House) Key member of the majority party who keeps close contact with all of the members of his/her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills and in general acts as communications link within a party. Minority Whip (House) Key member of the minority party who keeps close contact with all of the members of his/her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills and in general acts as communications link within a party. Vice President The presiding officer of the Senate according to The Constitution. But, he is not a senator and only votes in case of a tie (rarely). President pro tempore The official chair of the Senate; usually the most senior member of the majority party. Majority Leader (Senate) The elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the Senate; he/she is considered to be the one in charge of the senate. Majority Whip (Senate) Key member of the majority party who keeps close contact with all of the members of his/her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills and in general acts as communications link within a party. Minority Whip (Senate) Key member of the minority party who keeps close contact with all of the members of his/her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills and in general acts as communications link within a party. Purpose of committees It would be impossible for everyone in congress to debate an issues (especially in the house), so specialized committees debate on the bill and amend it. Standing committee *does most work* Committee to which proposed bills are referred; continues from one Congress to the next. Joint committee Committee that includes members from both houses of Congress to conduct investigations or special studies. (Generally Weaker) Conference committee Special joint committee created to iron out differences between Senate and House versions of a specific piece of legislation. Final stages before the bill goes to the president. Select/Special committee Study specific issues on a temporary basis. Discharge petition (HOUSE ONLY) Vote by representatives to get a bill moved out of Committee. Committee selection decision Based on expertise, and party loyalty. Impact of political parties in committees Committee chair leader, majority of committee members. Committee chairs Leader of committee, always member of majority party. Pork barrel legislation Amendments that usually have absolutely nothing to do with the bill trying to be passed. ex) The bill is about better schools but pork but Oklahoma senator puts port in for new highways. Earmarks Amendments that also have nothing to do with the bill. Incumbent advantage 98% reelection rate, support staff. "If my congressman hasn't done anything wrong, why elect someone new?" Constituent A person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent. Trustee An elected official asks the constituent what they want, and ultimately makes the final decision based on what they told them. Delegate The people put complete trust in the representative and they make their decision without contacting the people. Politico A mixture of both a trustee and a delegate, it is the most commonly used technique. Divided Government Nearly half democrat, and half republican. Gridlock Nothing gets passed due to Divided Government. Logrolling Vote trading Party Caucuses Democratic and Republican, meetings for similar interests. Congressional Staff Work directly with congressmen and are the way that congressmen can communicate with constituents. Constituent Services 1/3 of staff Answering mail, meeting with voters, etc. Legislative Services 2/3 of staff Research, drafting legislation, scheduling hearings and meetings. Congressional Research Service Part of the Library of Congress, and gathers research for bills. Government Accountability Office Investigates how Congress and agencies spend taxpayer dollars. Congressional Budget Office Advises on the economic impact of bills. Legislative Process Proposed by member of house or senate > referred to committee by Speaker of House or Majority Leader > Committee debate > Committee presentation > Read and Amended > Read Again > Voted On > Next House (Repeat) > President > Veto > 2/3 supermajority to override. Markup Amendments added to the proposed bill. Quorum Minimum number needed for a senate. (218 for house, 51 for senate) Rules Committee Committee that determines rules for debating on a Bill. Hold Senator holds a bill by saying that he/she needs to obtain more information about it before voting. Filibuster A legislator who gives long speeches in an effort to delay or obstruct legislation that he (or she) opposes. Cloture 60 Senate votes to stop a filibuster. Veto President rejects a bill and it is not turned into law. Pocket Veto Congress adjourns, and the president does not sign the bill. Veto Override 2/3 supermajority from both houses can be used to override a veto. Congressional Oversight Congressional review of the activities of an agency, department, or office. Congressional Review It allows congress to review specific activities of an agency. More in depth then oversight. War Powers Act Requires president notify congress of an act of war within 2 days, and congress must approve before 60 days. Advice and Consent A legal expression in the United States Constitution that allows the Senate to constrain the President's powers of appointment and treaty-making. Senatorial Courtesy Presidents defer selection of district court judges to the Senator in whose state the vacancy occurs.