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Amsco...Diplomacy and World War 11 (1929-1945)

Manchuria (Manchukuo)

The territory that Japan marched into to establish a puppet govt in September 1931; this was the greatest threat to world peace and also in direct defiance of the Open Door Policy.

Stimson Doctrine

Under which the US would honor its treaty obligations under the Nine Power Treaty of 1922 by refusing to recognize the legitimacy of any regime like "Manchukuo" that had been established by force; declared by Sec of State Henry Stimson in 1932.

Good-neighbour Policy

Established by FDR in his first inaugural address, concentrating on other nations of the Western Hemisphere.

Pan American Conferences

In 1933, US delegation pledged never again to intervene in the internal affairs of a Latin American country; In 1936, Roosevelt attended and personally pledge to submit future disputes to arbitration and also warned that if a European power such as Germany attempted to "commit acts of aggression against us," it would find "a hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good."

London Economic Conference (1933)

An international economic conference called by the League of Nations; proposals were made to stabilize currencies, but Roosevelt feared this would interfere with his plans to revive the US, so he pulled out and the conference ended without reaching an agreement.

Soviet Union, Recognized

Republican presidents had refused to recognize this territory until Roosevelt who promptly changed the policy by granting recognition in 1933.

Tydings-McDuffie Act

Passed in 1934, provided for the independence of the Philippines by 1946 and the gradual removal of US military presence from the islands.

Cordell Hull

The Secretary of State under Roosevelt who suggested a plan to give the president power to reduce US tariffs up to 50% for nations that reciprocated with comparable reductions for US imports.

Fascism

The idea that people should glorify their nation and their race through an aggressive show of force; advocated in Italy by Benito Mussolini.

Italian Fascist Party; Benito Mussolini

A party that attracted dissatisfied war veterans, nationalists, and those afraid of rising communism. The Italian fascist leader, or "Il Duce"

German Nazi party; Adolf Hitler

The equivalent of Italy's fascist party in Germany; arose in 1920s in reaction to deplorable economic conditions after the war and natl resentments over the Treaty of Versailles; The Nazi Leader who used bullying tactics against Jews as well as Fascist ideology to increase his popularity with disgruntled, unemployed German workers.

Axis Powers

Established in 1940, the alliance treaty formed between Japan, Italy, and Germany.

Isolationism

The idea that the US should not enter into firm commitments to preserve the security of other nations.

Nye Committee

Concluded in 1934 that the main reason for US participation in the world war was to serve the greed of bankers and arms manufacturers; established by Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota

Neutrality Acts

1935: Authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipments and to forbid US citizens to travel on the ships of belligerent nations; 1936) Forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents; 1937) Forbade the shipment of arms to the opposing sides in the civil war in Spain.

Spanish Civil War

Viewed by US as an ideological struggle between the forces of fascism, led by Gen Francisco Franco, and the forces of republicanism, called Loyalists. Ultimately in 1939, Franco's Fascists prevailed and established a military dictatorship

Francisco Franco

The general that led the Fascist troops in the Spanish Civil war, and later set up a military dictatorship.

America First Committee

Established by US Isolationists to mobilize American public opinion against war.

Appeasement

In an effort to avoid open conflict with Germany, the democracies adopted this policy, which allowed Hitler to get away with relatively small acts of aggression and expansion.

Ethiopia

In 1935, Mussolini ordered Italian troops to invade this country to prove fascism's military might; League of Nations and US objected but did nothing to stop the Italian aggressor.

Rhineland

In 1936, Hitler openly defied the Treaty of Versailles by marching German soldiers into this territory in Western Germany.

Czechoslavakia

Hitler insisted that Germany had a right to take over this strip of land which was mostly German Speaking.

Sudetenland

The mostly German speaking strip of land that was given to Hitler without opposition in a meeting between British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French President Edouard Daladier with Hitler.

Munich

A word that has become synonymous with appeasement.

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt's reaction to recognizing Fascist aggression while being limited by US isolationist feelings; this speech suggested that the democracies act together to "quarantine" the aggressor.

Poland; Blitzkrieg

Begun on September 1, 1939, German tanks and planes began a full-scale invasion of Poland; Britain and France kept their pledge and declared war against Germany, and soon with Axis Allies Italy and Japan. World War II in Europe had begun; The use of air power and fast moving tanks in warfare aka "lightning war"

Cash and Carry

A less restrictive neutrality act adopted by Congress in 1939, this provided that a belligerent could buy US arms if it used its own ships and paid cash; although it was "neutral" it strongly favoured Britain.

Selective Training and Service Act

Established by Congress in September 1940, this act provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 35 and for the training of 1.2 million troops in just one year.

Destroyers for bases deal

Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.

Wendell Wilkie

The Republican nominee for president in the 1940 election, he was a surprise nominee as he had never before run for public office; He criticized the New deal but largely agreed with Roosevelt on preparedness and giving aid to Britain short of actually entering the war. His strongest criticism of Roosevelt was regarding his decision to break the two term tradition established by George Washington.

Four Freedoms Speech

A speech that proposed lending money to Britain for the purchase of US war materials and justified such a policy because it was a defense of "four freedoms." Addressed to the Congress on January 6, 1941.

Lend-Lease Act (1941)

An Act that replaced the Cash and Carry idea; it allowed Britain to obtain all the US arms it needed on credit.

Atlantic Charter

A document drawn up by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and FDR; it affirmed what their peace objectives would be when the war ended.

Pearl Harbour

On December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers flew over the US naval base in Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, bombing every ship in sight while many soldiers were still asleep in their bunks. 2400 Americans were killed and the Surprise attack lasted less than two hours. This attack targeted the US Congress' decision to declare war on Japan at the request of Roosevelt. Three days later, the other Axis powers declared war on the United States.

Office of Price Administration

A federal agency that regulated almost every aspect of civilians' lives by freezing prices, wages, and rents and rationing such commodities as meat, sugar, gasoline, and auto tires.

Smith v. Allwright

A supreme court case in 1944 that ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.

Korematsu v US

This supreme court case followed the movement of 100,000 Japanese Americans moved to internment camps; the case upheld the US govt's internment policy as justified in wartime.

Harry S. Truman

Roosevelt's replacement for too-radical VP Henry Wallace; A Missouri senator with a natl reputation for having conducted a much-publicized investigation of war spending.

Battle of the Atlantic

This battle had two objectives: (1) overcoming the menace of German submarines in the Atlantic and (2) beginning bombing raids on German cities; German subs sank over 500 Allied ships in 1942, but the Allied powers developed ways to fight back via sonar, radar, and bombing of German naval bases.

Dwight Eisenhower

The US General that led Operation Torch in November of 1942 in an effort to seize North Africa from Germany.

D day

June 6, 1944....the date the Allied drive to liberate France began, with the largest invasion by sea in history. On this day, British, Canadian, and US forces under the command of General Eisenhower secured several beachheads on the Normandy coast.

Battle of the Bulge

Germany's desperate counterattack launched in Belgium in December 1944.

Holocaust

The program established by Hitler for the systematic murder of Jewish civilians. It was discovered following the war as US troops advanced on Germany during which they came upon concentration camps and witnessed the horrifying extent of the Nazi's program of Genocide against Jews and others.

Battle of Midway

One of two decisive battles against Japan that marked the turning point in the war; the interception and decoding of Japanese messages enabled US forces to destroy four Japanese carriers and 300 planes.

Chester Nimitz

An admiral who adopted the strategy of "island-hopping" to enable the Allied powers to get within fighting range of the Japanese islands.

Douglas MacArthur

A general who commanded army units in the southern Pacific.

Manhattan Project

a top-secret project that employed over 100,000 people and spent $2 billion to develop a weapon whose power came from the splitting of the atom.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

The physicist who directed the Manhattan project for the development of the atomic bomb.

Atomic Bomb

A weapon whose power came from the splitting of the atom; it was successfully tested on July 15, 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Hiroshima; Nagasaki

The two Japanese cities on which Harry S Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs; August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively. About 250,000 Japanese died, either immediately, or as a result of prolonged suffering caused by radiation poisoning as a result of the two bombs.

Big Three

The leaders of the US, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain who arranged to confer secretly to coordinate their military strategies and to lay the foundation for peace terms.

Yalta

A resort town on the Black Sea coast of the Soviet Union where the Big Three conferred in February 1945. The agreement here would prove to have long-term significance.

United Nations

The peacekeeping organization that was conceived during WWII and put in place immediately after the war. Ratified on October 24, 1945.

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