predefined formulas that perform calculations by using specific values, called arguments, in a specfic order
indicates a cell's location and provides instructions for how cell data is copied or used in calculations
relative cell reference
cell value changes as the formula is copied
absolute cell reference
cell value remains static when copied to other locations
mixed cell reference
indicates the combination of an absolute cell and a relative cell, such as $A4
control the order of operations
conditions or criteria
tell the function how to calculate the results and what data to use
adds the range of cells
determines the average of the range of cells
finds the highest number in the range of cells
finds the lowest number in the range of cells
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