History exam study guide pg 4

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Brigham Young

New Mormon Leader after Joseph Smith was assassinated. Helped to settle the Morons in Utah.

William Layod Garrison

Owned the newspaper, The Liberbator. Worked his whole life to free the slave.

Frederick Douglass

Former slave who worked for the Anti-slavery movement. Famous for his eloquent speeches.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Campaigner for women's right.

Noah Webster

"Schoolmaster to America." Wrote the American dictionary.

Dorothea Dix

Helped to improve the treatment of the mentally ill.

Samuel Slater

Introduced the factory system to the USA. Began this by stealing plans from England for a textile machine called the spinning jenny.

Eli Whitney

Developed the cotton gin and the factory system of interchangeable parts.

Robert Fulton

His boat, the Clermont, went from New York City to Albany, New York. First time a boat had gone upstream.

Dr. Crawford W. Long

Performed the first painless operation using ether.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Author who wrote The Scarlet Letter, a book about sin.

Edgar Allen Poe

Author who wrote "The Raven" and "The Tell-Tale Heart". Wrote disturbing stories and poetry.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Poet. Wrote the "Midnight Ride of Paul Revere."

Elizebeth Blackwell

First woman doctor.

Francis Cabot Lowell

Established first mill town in America which was Lowell, Massachusetts.

Sencea Falls Convention

Women's rights convention. Wrote the Declaration of Woman's Right based on the declaration of Independence.

Emily Dickinson

Famous poet who was a recluse and is one of America's best-known poets.

John James Audubon

Naturalist who drew wildlife, especially birds, as they appear in nature.

Louisa May Alcott

Famous author of the book, Little Women

Whigs

Andrew Jackson's rivals. Henry Clay was the leader of the Whigs.

Old Hickory

Andrew Jackson's nickname.

exposition and protest

John C. Calhoun's response to the Tariff of 1828. Said that the states should be able to declare this tariff null and void and unconstitutional.

Idea central to Jacksonian Democracy.

The common man should have just as many rights as anyone else.

Spoil's System

When a person is elected and replaces government jobs with his/her supporters.

Tariff of Abominations

Highest Tariff in American history up to that point. South hated it.

Jackson's Supporters

Most federal Frontiersmen.

"Our federal union, it must be preserved"

Said by Andrew Jackson at the Jefferson Day Dinner in 1830. Meant that Jackson believed that the federal government should be more powerful than the states.

Sequoyah

Cherokee Indian who is the only history to have written a new alphabet.

Trail of Tears

The journey west in which thousands of indians died.

"The Union, next to our liberty, most dear"

Sadi by John c. Calhoun at the Jeffersons Day Dinner in 1830. Meant that the south (states) should have more power then the federal government.

Caucus

Used until the 1830s. A small group of people would choose who would run for office.

National Bank

Jackson was determined to "smash" it, and he did. Thought that it was unconstitutional and a tool of the rich.

John C. Calhoun

Vice-president under Andrew Jackson. Believed in states' rights.

"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"

Said by Daniel Webster during the Webster-Hayne debate.

Forse Bill

Andrew Jackson would use force if necessary to keep South Carolina from seceding from the Union.

Secede

When a section of the country (or a state) decided to leave the USA.

States' Rights

Idea that the states should have more power than the Federal government and could declare a law made by congress unconstitutional and null and void. South Carolina and John C. Calhoun led the way on this idea.

Veto

When the president refuses to sign a bill into law. Andrew Jackson vetoed more bills than any of the six presidents before him combined. (12 bills)

The great compromiser

Henry Clay

Webster- Hayne Debate

Famous debate in Congress between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne over states' rights and the power of the federal government.

Osceola

Famous Seminole leader (from Florida) who fought the whites for his land. Was tricked to surrender and died after placing a knife over his heart.

Indian Removal Act

Called for most Indians east of the Mississippi River in the South to move west onto reservation. Jackson defied the Supreme Court.

"Tippecanoe and Tyler, too"

Was the campaign slogan for William Henry Harrison's presidential campaign. Tippecanoe was a famous Indian battle won by Harrison; Tyler was John Tyler, his running mate.

Martin Ven Buren

Elected president in 1836. Even though Andrew Jackson had really caused the Depression of 1837, Van Buren was blamed for it and lost the election of 1840. Nickname was O.K.

Election of 1840

Whigs won with William Henry Harrison. First modern campaign. Political buttons, slogans, etc were used for the first time. Harrison's campaign symbol was the log cabin.

Erie Canal

Waterway that connected Albany and Buffalo, New York. Made New York City a hub of industry.

White males

Only people who could vote before 1865.

Laissez-faire

Government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy.

William Henry Harrison

President elected in 1840 (the curse). Died after one month in office.

John Tyler

Whig who became president after William Henry Harrison died. Not popular. Most of Tyler's cabinet resigned, and Whig leaders in Congress expelled him from the Whig party.

George Washington

President of the constitutional convention.

James Madison

Father of the constitution.

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