GEOLOGY TEST 4

79 terms by ccfb93 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

_____ a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks

quartz

which major component of detrital sedimentary rocks only rarely occurs as a primary mineral in igneous rocks

clays

zicon and tourmaline are dense, highly insoluble, chemically stable, minor minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. In which sedimentary rock might you expect to find these minerals concentrated?

sandstone lithified from quartz-rich beach sand

Sandstone's sediment

sand

Shale's sediment

all clay sediment

Conglomerate's sediment

gravel

Mudstone's sediment

clay and fine silt

compaction is a veyr important part of the lithification process for which of the following sediments

mud

A cherty limestone would contain which major constituents?

silica; calcite

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite?

evaporates

_____ sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock

arkosic

_____ cement produces bright-red and yellow colors in some sandstone

iron oxide

what is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks?

bedding or stratification

Which of the following would retain the most detailed impressions of fossilized organisms?

very fine-grained volcanic ash

What is a bittern?

residual brine left

________ are further concentrated in a residual brine after NaCL is crystalized

potassium, magnesium, and bromine

studies of deep-sea sediment cores have contributed greatly to scientific knowledge of _______

climatic changes

What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?

breccia clasts are angular, conglomerates clasts are rounded

Which of the following describes the correct order for relative solubility of minerals in sedimentary rocks?

evaporate minerals are more soluble than calcite and quartz

A graywacke is _______

a sandstone with sand grains embedded

which statement concerning sedimentary rocks is not true?

they were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea

Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?

chalk

____ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones

fluorite

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) based on the _____

grain sizes of the detritral particles

Which of the following applies to the basic constituents of halite, gypsum, and sylvite?

transported as dissolved ions, deposited by evaporation

Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of

quartz

Sedimentary rocks account for about what percentage of the Earth's outermost 10 kilometers of rock? What percentage of the Earth's continental area is covered by sedimentary rocks?

5% and 75%

Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?

conglomerate

Which type of sediment undergoes the most compaction as it lithifies to sedimentary rocks?

marine mud

Which of the following Detrital grains of which mineral(s) are extremely rare in detrital sediments? Why?

calcite; it is soft and relatively soluble

Which of the following sedimentary features would typically be found in shales but not in sandstones?

mud cracks

_____ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock

limestone

_____ is a form of calcium carbonate

travertine

Which one of the following is not a chemical sedimentary rock or evaporite?

shale

Which one of the following is not a type of limestone?

arkose

Oolitic Limestone is most likely to form in what type of depositional environment?

shallow, clear, marine

What is the chemical formula for dolomite, the major mineral in dolostones?

CaMg(CO3)2

Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions?

ripple marks and cross stratification

Coal beds originate in_____

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Which characteristic is absolutely necessary for a sedimentary rock to have a potential as a possible reservoir rock for oil or gas?

high porosity

Non clastic textures are common in which of the following sedimentary rocks?

limestones

____ is not a part of the hydrologic cycle

Calcium Carbonate

Which one of the following statements is correct?

sea level drops when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels

A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth, canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct?

the natural channel had a lower gradients and higher friction than the straight channel

How does urbanization (paving, etc) affect runoff and infiltration in a small, previously forested, drainage base?

infiltration decreases, runoff increases

Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?

sea level falls; land rises

______ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams

silt and clay-sized, detrital grains

____ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream

capacity

At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as_____

distributaries

Why is a bird-foot delta like that of the present-day Mississippi below New Orleans likely to change naturally toward one with the shape of an equilateral triangle like the upper-case, Greek letter delta?

potential, new, major distributary channels have steeper gradients than existing channels

In the absence of cutoff, how does a river meander loop behave over time?

the gradient is lowered as the channel lengthens and migrates toward the cut or outer bank of the loop

A ___ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward

radial

A ____ stream patter develops on lands underlain by tilted or folded, alternating hard and soft, sedimentary strata.

trellis

_____ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop

an oxbow

______ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution

rapids and lots of whitewater

Many larger rivers in the Colorado Plateau region meander in deep, narrow canyons and have no flood plains. How could this happen?

original, old age streams

A water gap is _____

a short segment of canyon

Which of the following is the only correct response concerning the location and causes of the extraordinarily sever, 1993, flooding on the Mississippi River and tributaries?

upper basin; very heavy sustained rainfall in the late spring and early summer

Which one of the following statements correctly describes how stream terraces can form?

a temporary base level is eliminated; the stream downcuts upstream form the old temp base level

______ are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the atmosphere

evaporation and transpiration

What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?

stream gradient

The ____ river has the largest discharge of any in the world

amazon

Which one of the following does not apply to stream turbulence and average velocity?

laminar flow; dissolved load

Which one of the following is true concerning a major river system?

upstream tributaries usually have higher competencies than the major rivers

______ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.

suspended load

Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?

on the outer parts of the meandering loops or bends

Which one of the following would cause stream rejuvenation?

the land is uplifted

Which one of the following statements is true concerning natural levees?

mostly fine sand and silt that build up during a floor

In a ____ drainage pattern that is generally developed in areas underlain by tilted or folded strata, tributary streams flow along outcrop areas of the softer strata

trellis(folded)

A ____ drainage pattern is common in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province

trellis(AV/RP)

A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean? What is the average gradient?

0.5m/km

_____ in a delta are essentially cross strata inclined toward deeper water

foreset beds

The ____ describes the movement of water through Earth's hydrosphere

hydrologic circle

______ describes the particle transport mode in streams intermediate between suspension and rolling along the bottom

saltation

Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys?

natural levees; broad flood plains

Entrenched meanders are evidence for what sequence of geologic events?

land uplift was followed by stream downcutting

Which one of the following best describes how urbanization affects small-stream watersheds?

infiltration decreases; lag time between storms and peak runoff is shortened

A dam and reservoir are constructed on a graded river. What will happen?

deposition upstream from the sam; channel downcutting below

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set