the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency, when analyzing another's behavior, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation.
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act reduce the discomfort (dissonance), we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) clash. for example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions don't match, we may change our attitudes so that we feel more comfortable.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
"us" -people with whom we share a common identity.
"them" -those perceived as different or apart from our group.
the tendency to favor our own group.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration -the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of yourself to others.
unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
mutual views of each other often held by people in conflict.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.