Bio 113 Final Chapter 13

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What is a genome?
A) The complete complement of an organism's genes
B) A specific set of polypeptides within each cell
C) A specialized polymer of four different kinds of monomers
D) A specific segment of DNA that is found within a prokaryotic chromosome
E) An ordered display of chromosomes arranged from largest to smallest

The complete complement of an organism's genes

Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?
A) Genes correspond to segments of DNA.
B) Many genes contain the information needed for cells to synthesize enzymes and other
proteins.
C) During fertilization, both the sperm and the ovum contribute genes to the resulting fertilized
egg.
D) One gene only is used in a specific cell type.
E) Genetic differences can result from changes in the DNA called mutations.

One gene only is used in a specific cell type.

Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction differ in all but which of the following ways?
A) Individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereas
individuals reproducing sexually transmit only 50%.
B) Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereas
sexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring.
C) Asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two.
D) Asexual reproduction requires only mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involves
meiosis.
E) Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is
utilized only by plants and animals.

Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is
utilized only by plants and animals.

If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly
desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to
establishing a line of such plants?
A) Backtrack through her previous experiments to obtain another plant with the same traits.
B) Breed this plant with another plant with much weaker traits.
C) Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.
D) Force the plant to self-pollinate to obtain an identical one.
E) Add nitrogen to the soil of the offspring of this plant so the desired traits continue.

Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.

Asexual reproduction results in identical offspring unless which of the following occurs?
A) Natural selection
B) Cloning
C) Crossing over
D) Mutation
E) Environmental change

Mutation

The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?
A) Every human cell
B) Each human chromosome
C) The entire DNA of a single human
D) The entire human population
E) Each human gene

Every human cell

A gene's location along a chromosome is known as which of the following?
A) Allele
B) Sequence
C) Locus
D) Variant
E) Trait

Locus

What is a karyotype?
A) The set of unique physical characteristics that define an individual
B) The collection of all the mutations present within the genome of an individual
C) The combination of chromosomes found in a gamete
D) A system of classifying cell nuclei
E) A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to
size and shape

A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to
size and shape

At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a
karyotype?
A) Prophase
B) Metaphase
C) Anaphase
D) Telophase
E) Interphase

Metaphase

The human X and Y chromosomes
A) are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike.
B) are of approximately equal size and number of genes.
C) are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names.
D) include genes that determine an individual's sex.

include genes that determine an individual's sex

Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.
B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.
C) Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.
D) During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes.
E) A gamete from this species has 4 chromosomes.

Each cell has 8 homologous pairs

Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which
do all sexual life cycles have in common?
I. Alternation of generations
II. Meiosis
III. Fertilization
IV. Gametes
V. Spores
A) I, IV, and V
B) I, II, and IV
C) II, III, and IV
D) II, IV, and V

II, III, and IV

Which of these statements is false?
A) In humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome.
B) In humans, the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, determines whether the person is female
(XX) or male (XY).
C) Single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization,
forming a diploid (2n), single-celled zygote.
D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.
E) Sexual life cycles differ with respect to the relative timing of meiosis and fertilization.

At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in
A) spores.
B) gametophytes.
C) zygotes.
D) sporophytes.
E) clones.

zygotes

Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that
leads directly to the formation of gametes?
A) Sporophyte meiosis
B) Gametophyte mitosis
C) Gametophyte meiosis

Gametophyte mitosis

Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
A) A grandparent and grandchild each has dark hair, but the parent has blond hair.
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular,
haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
C) A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization to
produce a diploid zygote.
D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization,
which is immediately followed by meiosis.
E) A diploid cell divides by mitosis to produce two diploid daughter cells, which then fuse to
produce a tetraploid cell.

A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular,
haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

Which of the life cycles is typical for animals?
A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) I and II
E) I and III

I only

Which of the life cycles is typical for plants and some algae?
A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) I and II
E) I and III

III only

Which of the lify cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists?
A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) I and II
E) I and III

II only

In part III of Figure 13.1, the progression of events corresponds to which of the following
series?
A) Zygote, mitosis, gametophyte, mitosis, fertilization, zygote, mitosis
B) Sporophyte, meiosis, spore, mitosis, gametophyte, mitosis, gametes, fertilization
C) Fertilization, mitosis, multicellular haploid, mitosis, spores, sporophyte
D) Gametophyte, meiosis, zygote, spores, sporophyte, zygote
E) Meiosis, fertilization, zygote, mitosis, adult, meiosis

Sporophyte, meiosis, spore, mitosis, gametophyte, mitosis, gametes, fertilization

In a life cycle such as that shown in part III of Figure 13.1, if the zygote's chromosome
number is 10, which of the following will be true?
A) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.
B) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 5 and the gametophyte's is 10.
C) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 10 chromosomes per cell.
D) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 5 chromosomes per cell.
E) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 20 chromosomes per cell.

The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.

The karyotype of one species of primate has 48 chromosomes. In a particular female, cell
division goes awry and she produces one of her eggs with an extra chromosome (25). The most
probable source of this error would be a mistake in which of the following?
A) Mitosis in her ovary
B) Metaphase I of one meiotic event
C) Telophase II of one meiotic event
D) Telophase I of one meiotic event
E) Either anaphase I or II

Either anaphase I or II

A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of
the following?
A) It must be human.
B) It must be a primate.
C) It must be an animal.
D) It must be sexually reproducing.
E) Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes.

Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes

A triploid cell contains three sets of chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with
42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following?
A) 63 chromosomes in 31 1/2 pairs
B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3
C) 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatids
D) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes

63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

A karyotype results from which of the following?
A) A natural cellular arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus
B) An inherited ability of chromosomes to arrange themselves
C) The ordering of human chromosome images
D) The cutting and pasting of parts of chromosomes to form the standard array
E) The separation of homologous chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis

The ordering of human chromosome images

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is
A) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.
B) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
C) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.
D) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
E) tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA
and are just about to begin meiosis?
A) They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.
B) They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
C) They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
D) They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
E) They have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA.

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?

A) Late prophase of meiosis I
B) During fertilization or fusion of gametes
C) Early anaphase of meiosis I
D) Mid-prophase of meiosis II
E) Late metaphase of meiosis II

Late prophase of meiosis I

For the following questions, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below.
I. Prophase IV. Prophase II
II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II
III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II
IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II
Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle; alignment determines
independent assortment.
A) I
B) II
C) IV
D) VII
E) VIII

II

I. Prophase IV. Prophase II
II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II
III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II
IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II
Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.
A) I
B) II
C) IV
D) VI
E) VII

I

I. Prophase IV. Prophase II
II. Metaphase I VI. Metaphase II
III. Anaphase I VII. Anaphase II
IV. Telophase I VIII. Telophase II
Centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate
A) II
B) III
C) IV
D) V
E) VII

VII

32) Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
A) Homologous chromosomes are separated.
B) The chromosome number per cell is conserved.
C) Sister chromatids are separated.
D) Four daughter cells are formed.
E) The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end.

Homologous chromosomes are separated.

Refer to the drawings in Figure 13.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might
appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions.
Which diagram represents prophase I of meiosis?
A) I
B) II
C) IV
D) V
E) VI

IV

A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different.
A) The statement is true for mitosis only.
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.
C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.
D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
E)
The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

the statement is true for meiosis I only

Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.
A) The statement is true for mitosis only.
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.
C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.
D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

The statement is true for meiosis I only

Chromatids are separated from each other.
A) The statement is true for mitosis only.
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.
C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.
D) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
E) The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs.
A) The statement is true for mitosis only.
B) The statement is true for meiosis I only.
C) The statement is true for meiosis II only.

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a light
microscope. What would you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide?
A) A visible nuclear envelope
B) Separated sister chromatids at each pole of the cell
C) Tetrads lined up at the center of the cell
D) A synaptonemal complex
E) A cleavage furrow

Tetrads lined up at the center of the cell.

You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determined the relative
DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in Figure 13.3. Refer to
the graph to answer the following
questions.
If the cells were from a plant, which sample might represent a gametophyte cell?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) Either I or II
E) Either II or III

III

Which sample of DNA might be from a nerve cell arrested in G0 of the cell cycle?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) Either I or II
E) Either II or III

I

Which sample might represent an animal cell in G2 phase of the cell cycle?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) Both I and II
E) Both II and III

II

Which sample might represent a sperm cell?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) Either I or II
E) Either II or III

III

The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below.
1. Formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus
2. Alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate
3. Separation of sister chromatids
4. Separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere
5. Synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs
From the descriptions above, which of the following is the order that most logically
illustrates a sequence of meiosis?
A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
C) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
D) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3
E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1

5, 2, 4, 3, 1

The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below.
1. Formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus
2. Alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate
3. Separation of sister chromatids
4. Separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere
5. Synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs

Which of the steps take place in both mitosis and meiosis?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 5
D) 2 and 3 only
E) 2, 3, and 5

3

Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
A) Chromosome replication
B) Synapsis of chromosomes
C) Production of daughter cells
D) Alignment of chromosomes at the equator
E) Condensation of chromatin

Synapsis of chromosomes

If an organism is diploid and a certain gene found in the organism has 18 known alleles
(variants), then any given organism of that species can/must have which of the following?
A) At most, 2 alleles for that gene
B) Up to 18 chromosomes with that gene
C) Up to 18 genes for that trait
D) A haploid number of 9 chromosomes
E) Up to, but not more than, 18 different traits

At most, 2 alleles for that gene

Whether during mitosis or meiosis, sister chromatids are held together by proteins referred to
as cohesions. Such molecules must have which of the following properties?
A) They must persist throughout the cell cycle.
B) They must be removed before meiosis can begin.
C) They must be removed before anaphase can occur.
D) They must reattach to chromosomes during G1.
E) They must be intact for nuclear envelope reformation.

They must be removed before anaphase can occur.

Experiments with cohesions have found that
A) cohesions are protected from destruction throughout meiosis I and II.
B) cohesions are cleaved from chromosomes at the centromere before anaphase I.
C) cohesions are protected from cleavage at the centromere during meiosis I.
D) a protein cleaves cohesions before metaphase I.
E) a protein that cleaves cohesions would cause cellular death.

cohesions are protected from cleavage at the centromere during meiosis I.

A tetrad includes which of the following sets of DNA strands?
A) Two single-stranded chromosomes that have synapsed
B) Two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsed
C) Four sets of sister chromatids
D) Four sets of unique chromosomes
E) Eight sets of sister chromatids

Two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsed.

Refer to the following information and Figure 13.4 to answer the following questions.
A certain (hypothetical) organism is diploid, has either blue or orange wings as the consequence
of one of its genes, and has either long or short antennae as the result of a second gene, as shown
in Figure 13.4.
A certain female's chromosomes 12 both have the blue gene and chromosomes 19 both have
the long gene. As cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have which
of the following?
A) Either two chromosomes 12 with blue genes or two with orange genes
B) Either two chromosomes 19 with long genes or two with short genes
C) Either one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one long and one short gene
D) One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene

One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene

If a female of this species has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and another chromosome
12 with an orange gene, she will produce which of the following egg types?
A) Only blue gene eggs
B) Only orange gene eggs
C) 1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggs
D) 3/4 blue and 1/4 orange gene eggs
E) An indeterminate frequency of blue and orange gene eggs

1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggs

A female with a paternal set of one orange and one long gene chromosomes and a maternal
set comprised of one blue and one short gene chromosome is expected to produce which of the
following types of eggs after meiosis?
A) All eggs will have maternal types of gene combinations.
B) All eggs will have paternal types of gene combinations.
C) Half the eggs will have maternal and half will have paternal combinations.
D) Each egg has 1/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short
combinations.
E) Each egg has a 3/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short
combinations.

Each egg has a 3/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short
combinations.

Chiasmata are what we see under a microscope that let us know which of the following is
occurring?
A) Asexual reproduction
B) Meiosis II
C) Anaphase II
D) Crossing over
E) Separation of homologs

Crossing Over

How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
A) By allowing independent assortment of chromosomes
B) By allowing fertilization
C) By increasing gene stability
D) By conserving chromosomal gene order
E) By decreasing mutation frequency

by allowing independent assortment of chromosomes

For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations
of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
A) 23
B) 46
C) 460
D) 920
E) About 8 million

About 8 million

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