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Public conversing speakers

Bishop Fulton Sheen

- He often talked about the various speeches he gave, all without notes
- His programs still can hold even an audience of media and social network savvy students like us
- Led a Catholic Church

JFK

- he was effective because he spoke in public as he normally conversed in private
- took the time to look up from the script that all presidents then used on formal occasions
- when he spoke, there never was a doubt that be believed every line he spoke
- Ich bin ein Berliner- I am a citizen of berlin
- quotation from a june 1963 speech he gave in west berlin
- this speech was considered one of his best, and notable
- good morale boost for the west berliners
- he spoke in front of a group of 1 million which was a huge advantage, and with that many people it took a while for people to calm down, so it allowed kennedy plenty of time to look down at his speech for the next line

- Kennedy also wrote much of the speech himself, which is a huge advantage when the text is spoken since the words are the speakers own
- his ethos was raised by the fact that he wasn't acting from someone elses script
- HE HAD PASSION in his speech

Martin Luther King

- good deal of prominence came from his speaking ability
- Had charisma and speaking skills
- During speeches, the audience decides whether or not it will attend to hear a speaker, and the speaker will converse if necessary
- MLK received a grade "C" in Public speaking 1 at Crozer Theological Seminary in Penn
- Kings most famous address "I Have a Dream," he had to type out on request was less than three legal sized double-spaced pages
- The "I Have a Dream," speech is remembered to this day as one of the most powerful speeches he ever gave
- "I Have a Dream," was a spontaneous response to the audience and it felt right to him to use this expression
- If king had not decided to leave his written text if is doubtful that his speech at the march would be remembered at all
- He described his rejection of the performing approach as coming early to him
- explaining the C in public speaking later in college, since performing from the printed word was de rigueur in the fifties
-

Malcom X

- He was greatly influenced by his preacher father
- went to prison for some ungodly reason, and while he was in prison, he converted to islam and when he was released he became a speaker for his faith
- preached complete separation from the white man and armed resistance to those who threatened blacks
- his speeches were forceful, reasoned and prideful
- the exact opposite of MLK
- powerful converser without notes who connected with black audiences unlike a few others

Richard M. Nixon

- he was a debater in college and quite good at it
- he knew how to act as if he was conversing with his audience--> brings up his famous "Checkers" speech on TV
- in that speech, he was defending himself against the charge that he took campaign money illegally
- Nixon had to give the speech of his life to the american people on national television in order to salvage his political future and it was successful

Robert Kennedy

- wasn't a mesmerizing speaker, but he was convincing when he spoke conversationally about problems in America, like poverty
- when he was campaigning for democratic presidential nominations, he learned that before he boarded his plane that MLK had been shot and killed
- Kennedy was given a new speech, but he wrote notes for the speech on the way over
- he gives the speech in a conversationally way because it was what had just happened at the time
- TWO POINTS
1. His speech is not a thing of beauty in print, but it had the effect of the audience being the only major American city (Indianapolis) not to riot after Kings death. It was so effective because his conversational approach
2. His speech wasn't angry or very emotional. The ethos was immense because the crowd sensed that here was a man who had suffered from hate as did King, and here he was trying to argue that despite this huge loss to both blacks and whites over deaths, we had to move on.

We wish to point out what mattered to the audience as Robert Kennedy conversed

1. He wasn't afraid to tell the audience the truth
2. He wasn't afraid to come to Indianapolis
3. He spoke conversationally, hardly referring to his notes
4. He spoke of his brothers death by a white man for the first time in public
5. He didn't speak down to them; he spoke as a highly educated person
6. He spoke on the street, instead of in a hall

Ronald Reagan

- He was a successful performer
- He was a screen actor who essentially always portrayed himself
- A script is a natural prop for him and a camera the best audience and he always delivered lines expertly
- He didn't practice as an actor should
- The result was good with his live audiences
- His speaking effectiveness on television was powerful
-

Ross Perot

- The amateur politician who managed to win two out of the three debates and virtually tying for second in the other
- He had not prepared at all for the speeches except for reading some position papers
- He didn't participate in "mock debates" as the other two participants did
- If Perot did a little bit of preparation, particularly in the use of the town hall format, he might have won all three debates
- The reductionism categories used to rate the candidates were: 1. Analysis, 2. Reasoning, 3. Evidence, 4. Refutation, 5. Delivery
- Delivery would relate the Ethos
- Aristotle said "The style of written prose is not that of spoken oratory.."
- He had learned through lifes lessons that conversing made the purchase and performance did not
- He had been a salesman, and was a good one. He found that conversing was the key to success, and he learned that lesson quickly through selling
- He also confounded the television "experts" when he did half hour political commercials
- Featured just him and flip charts

Bill Clinton

- He was one of the most effective political public converser's of this generation
-

Rod Parsley

- he was an American Christian minister
- Television preachers of the evangelical bent are a direct descendent of the old time tent preachers who were like the circus; they put up their tents, mesmerized their audiences as they railed against sin, healed the sick, and sold religious articles and then left town with the money, leaving behind a satisfied audience
- TV preachers resemble the populists and their use of pathos is similar

The Performers

- Professional performers who use conversing to bond with their audiences
- It is effectively done and indeed the best performers always converse in their performances
- ex. comedians, which require feedback such as laughter

Robert Wuhl

- He is an actor, director, writer, comedian and public converser
- Has 2 HBO specials called "Assume the position"
- He is an entertainer and he does that in his two HBO specials, and he converses with the audience in exactly the same manner
- Even though they have their lines mapped out, but when they are delivered to the audience they send the messages naturally, conversing with both ethos and pathos for maximum impact

Dane Cook

- Performed first HBO special in 2005, "VIcious Circle."*****
- THis was one of his best stand-ups of his career
- It was done in the round, which means constant movement to present ones face to the audience, which surrounds you on all sides
- Very few comedians can pull this off
- It is nonverbal like eye contact and using it to make each member of the audience feel the conversation was between just Cook and his marvel
- Very natural execution
- He is a long form storyteller, using the mike as a sound effect instrument to punctuate the story and deliver many of the laughs

Lewis Black

- earned his masters of Fine Arts at the Yale School of Drama
- This advanced training and education shows in his work
- He started his career as a playwright and wrote many plays while also stewarding hundreds of one act plays in NYC
- He has appeared in films and on television successfully, it is as a live performer that he makes the best impression of his talent
- He has done two HBO specials, Black on Broadway and Red, Write and Screwed.
- He not only has the ethos and pathos down cold, his logo is timely, political, reasoned and effective

Rush Limbaugh fn 227

- A speaker, using the media very much like Father Coughlin, and certainly successful in terms of numbers
-

Putting it all Together

- Looking back, there is something special about public conversing
- It is extremely effective, and surprisingly, it does not require a great voice, a bubbly personality, or for that matter, a pretty face
- Public conversing gives the audience something that the performed word can't: a real human being
- Logos cannot stand effectively alone

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