Mr. Voorhees

Shinto

"the way of the gods," a religion based on belief in supernatural beings called kami

Buddhism

religion whose followers seek enlightenment and an end to human suffering

Buddha

founder of Buddhism; translated as Enlightened One

Four Noble Truths

beliefs described by Buddha that explain the connections between life, desire, and suffering

Eightfold Path

the way to find the Middle Way: right view, attitude, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration

Nirvana

a state of peaceful existence free from suffering

Middle Way

a life lived in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort and discomfort in the search for enlightenment

Hinduism

one of the world's oldest religions, practiced by most people in India today reincarnation-

Hindu

belief that the atman (soul) will be released from the body after death and later reborn in another; also called Samsara

Karma

the sum effect of a person's deeds and actions during life

Moksha

escape from the cycle of rebirth, considered by Hindus to be the ultimate goal of human existence

Dharma

set of spiritual duties and obligations for Hindus

Yoga

a series of physical and mental exercises that aid meditation

Jainism

religion founded by Hindus who broke away because they believed moksha could be achieved through giving up worldly goods and controlling one's actions

Ahimsa

nonviolence; idea that is central to Jain teaching

Christianity

a religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth

Messiah

a spiritual leader who, according to prophecy, would restore the ancient Kingdom of David

Jesus of Nazareth

a spiritual leader who taught people to seek forgiveness for their sins disciples followers

Apostles

twelve disciples chosen by Jesus

Martyrs

people who suffer death for the sake of their faith, inspiring others to believe

Paul

Jewish apostle who helped spread Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean region, formerly called Saul

Eucharist

a religious ceremony that commemorated Jesus's last supper

Bishop

a priestly official who oversaw church affairs in a particular city, had authority over other priests in the region

Pope

bishop of Rome

Judaism

the religion of the Hebrews

Torah

most sacred text of Judaism Abraham father of the Hebrew people covenant a solemn agreement

Patriarch

ancestral"fathers"

Moses

Hebrew leader who led his people out of Egypt

Exodus

the journey of the Hebrew people out of Egypt, led by Moses Diaspora the scattering of the Jews outside of Canaan

Monotheism

the belief in one God

Bedouins

nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsula's desert

Muhammad

founder of Islam

Hegira

Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina

Islam

religion founded by Muhammad; literally "to surrender"

Muslims

followers of Islam

Qur'an

sacred text of Islam, considered Allah's direct revelation

Five Pillars of Islam

obligations required of all Muslims

Mosque

name for the building where Muslims worship

Jihad

word that can be translated as "struggle for the faith" or "holy war" and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community or convert people to Islam

Exodus

the journey of the Hebrew people out of Egypt, led by Moses

Diaspora

the scattering of the Jews outside of Canaan

Confucianism

philosophy that stresses treating others humanely, practicing traditional
rituals, and honoring one's ancestors

Daoism

philosophy that teaches that harmony is found by finding one's place in nature

Laozi

The "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism).

Dao De Jing

Daoist teachings written by Laozi

Analects

Book written by Confucius about how to improve society and base leadership on merit.

Kongfuzi

Confucius' real name

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