Endocrine Glands

131 terms by bloofygirl 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

chap 15

how do endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands

how do endocrin glands endocrine glands secrete tiny amounts of hormones directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) and exocrine glands secret their products onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes called ducts(exo means "out" or "external")

in what ways are the functions and characteristics of the endocrine system similar to those of the nervous system

they both help maintain HOMEOSTASIS (balance)

in what ways are the functions of the endocrine system different then the nervous system

the endocrin system messengers,hormones, are produced by edocrine gland cells, or modified neurons.the nervous system messengers,called neurotransmitters,are produced only by neurons.they travel very short distances across synaptic spaces to produce their effect, the target of neurotransmitters are generally only muscle cells,glands,and other neurons.the endocrine system reacts slowly to changes but can sustain its responses for long periods.the nervous system reacts more quickly to changes but cannot sustain prolonged responses

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

hormone target

a cell that has receptors for a particular hormone

negative feedback system

Reverses a change in a controlled condition

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.

pituitary gland

The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones

anterior pituitary

what is the anterior lobe of the pituitary body

posterior pituitary

what is the lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone

adrenal cortex

what is the cortex of the adrenal gland

negative feedbask system

most hormones are controlled by what

hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary controlled by releasing and inhibiting factors from-------

antidiuretic hormone / oxytocin

posterior potuitary stores ------- ---------- and ----which alson controls release from storage

adenhypophysis

the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (rostral) is the

neurohypophysis

the posterior lobe of the pituitary body (caudal) is the

glandular

the adenohypophysisis has what kind of appearance

7 hormones

the adenohypophysisis produces how many hormones

nervous system

neurohypophysus develops were

growth hormone(GH) / prolaction / thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) / adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) / follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) / luteininzing hormone(LH) / melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)

what hormones does the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) produce...WE HAVE TO KNOW THESE)

somatotropin

what is the Growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

lactation

what does prolactin help trigger and maintain

as long as there is continues stimulation of the teat or nipple

how long is prolactin produced

thyrotropic hormone

THS, stimulates thryroid, affects all aspects of human function

cortex (outer portion) of the adrennal gland

ACTH,stimulates growth and development of the ---------- ------- ----- and it hormine release

stimulates growth and devellopment of follicles

what is FSH job

oogenisis

what is the science name of the production of mature egg cell

Spermatogenisis

what is The production of sperm called

spermatogenesis

(FSH) stimulates ---------- (sperm production) in the seminiferous tubes in the testes in the male

ovulation

increase in (LH) causes what in most female species

interstitial cell stimulating hormone(ICSH)

what is (LH) sometimes called

testosterone

LH,stimulates the interstital cells in the testes, to develop and produce ---------- in the male

color changes

MSH,is associated with --------- --------- in the pigment cells (melanocytes) of reptiles, fish,and amphibians.

hormones

what does the posterior pituitary not produce? but it does store it

antiduretic hormone(ADH) oxytocin

posterior pituitary stores the ------- and-------- which is transported down nerve fibers form the hypothalamus

distral convoluted tubules / collecting ducts

ADH, helps prenvent diuresis by reaborbing water from the ---- -------- and ----- ------- concentrating urine

diabetes insipidus

lack of ADH will cause ---------- ---------- causing animals gto become PU/PD

uterus / mamary glands

oxytocin has two targets what are they

myometrium

what is the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus

parturition

what is the act of giving birth called

myometrium / parturition

oxytocin causes contraction of the ---------- at breeding and ------- to move sperm up to oviducts and to expel fetus

milk let down

what action is caused by oxytocin in the mamary glands

thyroid

what two lobs are located on either side of the larynx

calcitonin

what hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones

Thryoid

what endocrin gland stores large amounts of hormone precusors for future use

hyperglucemia

what is greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood.

keeps blood sugar from dropping too low

what does thyroid hormone do

encoraging excessive blood to be deposited in the bones

what does calcitonin do

draws calcium out of the bones

what does parathroid glands do

hypocalcemia

PTH-parathryoid hormone or parathormine prevents --------- by drawing calcium out of the bone

two

how many glands does the adrenal gland have

outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla

what are the adrenal glands called

glucocorticoid / mineralocorticoid / sex hormones

the outer adrenal cortex produces what

ACTH / anterior pituitary

adrenal cortex develps from glandular tissue and is directed by ----- and---------

glucocorticoids

what is Increase blood glucose

mineralocorticoid

what is the what hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium

aldosterone

--------- is the principal mineralocorticoid.

Aldosterone

what effects levels of sodium,potassium,and hydrogen in the body.

kidney

what is the target organ with mineralocorticoids

sodium / potassium

with mineralocorticoids the kidney encouages ----- retentin in exchange for --------- and hydrogen ions

sex hormones

what produces androgens (male hormone) estrogens (female hormone)

sympathetic nervous system

what nervous system is the adrenal medulla control by

pancreas

exocrine glandular tissue which sectetes digestive enzymes makes up majoirty of the mass

insulin

what moves glucose from bloodstream into cells-hypoglycemic effect-lower blood glucose

glucagon

what raises blood glucose

gonads

what are the reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries

ovary

after ovulation takes places, corpus lluteum produces progestins, principally progesterone were,

erthropoietin

the kidney produces --------- which stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBC

Hypoxia

what is a lack of oxygen

hypoxia

the kidney is stimulated by -----------to produce erythropoietin.

gastrin

What hormone regulates digestion? which is produced in the stomach

secretin / cholecystokinin

the small intestine produces 2 hormones what are they

cholecystokinin

what stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat

secretin

A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.

gall bladder

secretin and cholecystokinin both inhibit gastric gland secretions and stilulate the --------- ------- to contract

gonadotropin

what is any hormone that stimulates gonadal function

humans and horses

the placenta produces larget amounts of chorionic gonadotropin-esp.in what species

T lymphocytes

what form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances

thymus

what gland is only present in young animals-and mearly disappears with age (after puberty)

Thymus

what gland produces thymosin and thymopoitin in tissues ,to be transformed into T lymphocytes

melationin

what is produced in the Pineal Gland, may have a role on night and day cycles.

pineal gland

what gland produces melationin

prostaglandins

what does PGE stand for

inflammation

prostaglandins is involved in what

Prostaglandins

what chemicals released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain, help the body transmit pain messages to the brain

Cushings syndrome

A condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

hypERadrenocorticism

what causes excess adrenal cortex hormones, Cushings Disease, dermatitis, hair loss, adrenal tumor,polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), muscular weakness, reproductive problems

hypOadrenocorticism

whats another name for addison's desease / caused by lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels

sodium / potassium

hypoadrenocorticism is mineralocorticoid(aldosterone) controls electrolyte bance,particularty ----------- and ---------

potassium / sodium

addisonian dogs with mineralocorticoid defiency usually have high ------ and low-----

mineralocorticoid

hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium

hyPERthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland is called

dogs / cats

hyperthyroidism is very rare in ---, but common in ----

diarrhea-restlessness-weightloss despite very good appetite - tachycardia

what are some clinical signs of feline hyperthyroidism

hyPOthyroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland is known as

cats / dogs

hypothyroidism is very rare in --- but common in ---

weight gain - lethargy - oily skin - alopecia - thickened skin - cold intolerance

what are some clinical signs of hypothyroidism

diabetis mellitus

what is chronic illness caused by lack of insulin in body or inhabilty to use insulin effectivly

not

with diabeted mellitus if an animal is not eating, insulin should ---- be administered so that hypoglucemia is not induced

hyPOglucemia

what is a condition in which there is too much insulin in the body, causing the blood sugar level to be low

young puppies / kittens / small animals

hypoglycemia is common in -- --- , ------ , and especially -- ----

increased blood pressure

which is not a function of insulin? increased glucose transport into muscle/ lipogenesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ increased blood pressure

gaining weight

which condition would be typical of hypothyroidism? decresed water consumption/ oily hair coat/ very active/weight gain

oxytocin

in dairy cattle the teats and udder are gently washed before milking to stimulate the release of -----------,which causes milk let-down

FSH

GnRH will stimulate the release of

cortisol

ACTH will stimulate the release of

pituitary gland

the neurohypophysis is an anatomic section of the

gluconeogenesis

insulin stimulates all of the following except? potein synthesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ glycogen synthesis/ gluconeogenesis

Erythropoietin

what hormone is produced by the kidney

pineal gland

the endocine structure responsible for secreting melationin is

insulin

the hormone that lowers the level of glucose in the blood by aiding the passage of glucose into cells is

oxytocin

the hormone that works on a positive feedback system to cause labor contractions is

glucocorticoids

the adrenal glands produce

progesterone

the pancreas produces

pituitary

what gland regulates most of the endocrine system

thyroxine and calcitonin

what hormones are produced byh the thyroid gland

oxytocin

what hormone stimulates milk let down

adjacent to the trachea

where is the thyroid gland located

transported via ducts

exocrine glands are glands whose secretory products are

iodine

what substance is required for production of thyroid hormones

yes

is loss of weight with a normal increased appetite a sign of hyperthyroidism

no

desreased metabolic rate a sign of hypertyroidisom

potentiation

when one hormone increases the activity of another hormone, the effect is termed

adrenocorticotropic hormone

abbreviation ACTH stands for

help control water loss from the kidney

the most important function of ADH is to

pancreatic juice

what substance is not classified as an endocrine hormone

paracrine

what type of hormine transmission uses interstitial fluid to diffuse the hormine through the body

ADH

what hormine increases the permeability of renal rubular cells to water

glucagon

what does alpha cells produce

insulin

what does beta cells produce

somatostatin / insulin

delta cells produce ------------ which inhibits the secrestion if -------,glucagon, and GH, as well as decreasing activity of GI tract.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set