AP European History Unit 1 - Renaissance

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Major Renaissance vocabulary with text pages where to find them.

Commune

Associations of menin Italian cities such as Milan, Florence, Genoa, and Pisa who sought political and economic independence from local nobles; wantedself-government - Page 417

Court of Star Chamber

A division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat - Page 445

Gabelle

French tax on salt - Page 444

Hermandades

Popular groups in spanish towns given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence - Page 445

Humanism

Term first used by Florentine rhetorician Leonard Bruni as a general word for "the new learning" the critical study of Latin and Greek literature, with the goal of realized human potential - Page 422

Individualism

Another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, and self-consciousness - Page 421

Justices of the Peace

English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government - Page 445

New Christians

Term applied to Jews who accepted Christianity but since many had become Christian centuries earlier, the word "new" is not accurate; Spanish nationalism stressed "purity of blood" - Page 447

Oligarchies

Governments by the merchant aristocracy in Italian cities, such as Venice and Florence - Page 418

Popolo

Disenfranchised people in Italian communes who resented their exclusion from power - Pager 417

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

Statement of French King Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy - Page 444

Princely courts

The place where rulers lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts - Page 418

Republic

Non-Monarchial government in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives - Page 417

Royal council

The body of men who happened to be with the king at a given time and usually including his chief officials; renaissance princes tended to prefer middle class councilors to noble ones - Page 444

Secularism

Attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief - Page 423

Signori

Government by despot: one man rule in Italian cities such as Milan - Page 418

Taille

French tax on ownership of land - Page 444

Botticelli

Painted for the Medici Family and Savonarola. He painted the Adoration of the Magi and the Birth of Venus

Castiglione

He wrote The Courtier, about how to become a true Renaissance man: the best man is one who shows competence and confidence

Donatello

Florentine Sculptor, who was employed by the Medici family. He made the statue of David

Brunelleschi

He was an architect who used mathematics, proportions, and balance to build a dome (for the roof of the Basilica)

Petrarch

He was considered the founder of the Renaissance movement by writing poems to Laura

Ghiberti

He was an architect, who built the Gates of Paradise

Giotto

He was a Florentine artist who painted the Adoration of the Magi

Boccaccio

He was a Florentine writer, who wrote the Decameron

Bruni

He wrote History of the Florentine People

Leonardo da Vinci

He was a true Renaissance Man: he was a painter, sculptor, engineer, and scientist. He was Florentine, but worked in Milan, Rome, and France. He is most famous for the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and Vetruvian Man

Valla

He rejected Scholasticism. He is famous for discrediting the Donation of Constantine, as well as rejecting stoicism or emotional flatlining. He supported the showing your emotions

Machiavelli

He wrote one of the most important books in history, the Prince. The book was on ways to gain, keep, and expand power

Michelangelo

He created the Statue of David, as well as painting the Sistine Chapel's ceiling

Raphael

He was a talented Florentine painter, known best for School of Athens

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