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Not cumulative over the whole semester.

Formative

sedentism, large communities (associated with agriculture)

Archaic

broad spectrum hunting and gathering

Social stratification

society is divided into groups that have difference access to resources

Paramount chief

the highest level chief or political leader in a region or area

Civilization

cities, monumental architecture, state government

Primary traits of civilization

urbanization (cities), full time labor specialization, social stratification (society is divided into groups), concentration surplus

Paleoindian

before 8,000 b.c.

Secondary traits of civilization

major water control systems, writing, monumental public architecture, classic, post classic

Classic

peak of cultural achievement

Post-Classic

civilizations that follow the decline of a classic civilization

Chiefdoms

political level of organization, one man (paramount chief) with special skills is the leader of a certain area

States

complex social organizations, centralized accumulation of capital/social status/long distance trade, division of labor, craft specialization, record keeping, public buildings and monumental architecture, all-embracing state religion

Urbanization

taking the characteristics of a city

Labor specialization

when certain jobs are performed by particular individuals

Medieval Climatic Anomaly

a period of warm climate 800-1350 A.D.

Writing

a technology for storing, manipulating, and communicating data

Pharaoh

a ruler in ancient Egypt

Human sacrifice

the act of killing one or more human beings as part of a religious ritual

Extirpation

wiping out a species locally

Bandkeramic

in Germany, 5300-4000 b.c., created Banderamic pottery

Ancestral Pueblo

aka the Anasazi, 100-1600 a.d.,

Cochise culture

pre-ceramic culture in the south west, paleo-indian

Hohokam San Pedro Phase

500bc-200ad, pre Hohokam culture, no pottery, had dart points and atlatls, corn, increasing sedentism

Anasazi Basketmaker II

500b.c. - 600a.d., no pottery, heavy reliance on corn and squash, corn agriculture, many storage pits, fair degree of sedentism, formal and deep pithouses, baskets, sandals, and nets were created

Anasazi Basketmaker III

600-750 a.d.,the first truely well made pottery in the south west, this is where pottery begins, lived in pithouses, domesticated beans

Anasazi Pueblo I

750-900 a.d., shift to above ground architecture (or pueblos)

Anasazi Pueblo II

900-1150 a.d., major and rapid population growth, were above ground in pueblo villages, three majors centers for Anasazi activity: Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and Rio Grande Pueblos, corrugated pottery, had a state, interpersonal violence and cannibalism

Anasazi Pueblo III

1150-1300, first lived in cliffs, had sophisticated pottery, where they lived was abandoned in the end of the period, signs of violence, great droucght of A.D. 1276-1299, multicolored pottery

Anasazi Pueblo IV

1300-1400 a.d., more abandonments, late comers arrive (Navajo and Apache), Spanish explorer Coronado shows up not long after the collapse of the Hohokam

Mogollon Pithouse

200-100 a.d., pithouses are a serious use of corn, first pottery (brown color)

Mogollon Pueblo

1000-1300 a.d., beginning of above ground architecture, pithouses still continued, very sophisticated pottery, great kivas were built (large ceremonial structures)

Hohokam Late Preclassic

persistence of pithouses, thousands of pithouses would distinguish a huge town, long canal systems, ball courts

Hohokam Classic Period

1150-1400 a.d., shift to above ground architecture, switch from ball courts to Platform mounds, chiefdoms, multicolored pottery

Eastern North AmericaFormative

200-500 b.c., some domestication of goosefoot and sunflower

Eastern North America Woodland

post 500 b.c., mounds and greater reliance on domesticates, cremation, marked increase in pottery

Apache

came down from the North to take over the Anasazi

Navajo

came down from the North to take over the Anasazi

Zuni

modern descendents of the Anasazi

Hopi

modern descendents of the Anasazi

Pima

modern Native American people living in central Arizona

Papago

modern day North American indians who live in Arizona

Woodland Period

(post 5000 BC)(some areas post 1000BC)in between archaic hunter gatheres and the Mississipian culture

Moundbuilders

constructed various styles of religious mounds for religious and ceremonial purposes, Southeast American cultures

Adena Culture

500 b.c. - 400 a.d., burial mounds, earthworks in square shape, beginning of long distance trade

Hopewell Culture

100-400 a.d., serpent mounds, between .25 and .5 miles long

Mississippian Culture

1000-1500 a.d., based on intense maize horticulture, more storage features, larger and more dense settlements in river valleys, platform mounds, planned and fenced settlements,

Southern Cult

a term given to a series of artistic motifs and associated religious beliefs of the Mississippian culture

Olmec

1500-500 b.c., lowland mesoamerica massive stone heads, earthen pyramids, distinctive artistic styles, glyphs

Formative Maya

1400 b.c. - 250 a.d., massive city, six square miles, monumental structures, large residential compounds, long distance trade

Classic Maya

250-850 a.d., political structures of multiple competing kingdoms, calender begins 3114 b.c., divine kingship, stond pyramid temples, astronomy, unique architectural styles

Teotihuacan

classic highland mexico, 200 b.c. - 750 a.d., obsidian, more than 5,000 structures, population was around 175,000, pyramid of the sun, avenue of the dead, pyramid of the moon, no ball courts, no writing

Toltecs

post classic highland mexico, had a lot of human sacrafices, capital was Tula, much smaller than the Teotihuacan, two ball courts, sculpted columns, Chacmool figures

Aztecs

1200-1521 a.d., derived from chichimecas, chinampas agriculture, picture writing, human sacrafices, Cortez (Spanish ruler) conquered them, last mesoamerican civilization

Chavin

900-1500 b.c., center of a religious cult, used hallucinigens, North coast

Pre-ceramic

also known as Caral-Supe, 3000-1800 b.c., pyramids, irrigation, avocado, beans, cotton, possibly quipu

Old Kingdom

3rd dynasty to 6th dynasty

New Kingdom

peak of Egypt's power, 1600-1100 b.c.

Chichimecas

the culture that the Aztecs derived from

Pochteca

long distance traveling merchants of the Aztec empire

Caral-Supe

(3000 - 1800 BC) Pyramids, irrigation, avocados, beans, cotton, possibly a quipu, earliest evidence for civilization in South America, state or independent communities?

Chimu

1000-1475 a.d., had a walled city, were taken over the by the Inca

Moche

flat topped adobe pyramids, pyramid of the sun and pyramid of the moon, craftsmanship in metal and pottery, irrigation

Inca

1438-1534 a.d., capital was Cuzco, in the Andes, the Incan state started in the Southern islands but then expanded to an empire in 1476 with the conquest of Chimu state, remarkable stonework, oral history, road system, no writing system, Mach picchu

Sumerians

created earliest literature, epic of Gilgamesh is an example

Mexica

indigenous people of the valley of Mexico, rulers of the Aztec empire, were the Nahua people

Tiwanaku

(450 a.d.)a site on the eastern side of the lake in Peru, was an economic and religious force

Wari

in the ayachucho valley, highland urban and ceremonial center that stands on a hill

Lekson's theory of the Chacoan state

what was found at the Chaco Canyon represents a state political structure

Cannibalism in the SW

found flesh in human coprolite, may have used cannibalism as a form of intimidation

The case for inter-group violence and raiding in the Anasazi area

groups were raiding one another for food, the groups started building their houses on cliffs for defensive purposes, raiding created warefare between groups

The Great drought and its impacts

1276-1299 a.d., caused the abandonment of the Anasazi

The Olmec Horizon

the Olmec state could have been created from the product of conquest or product of trade

Childe's Urban Revolution

with civilization came full time labor specialization, and the craft's people making metal pushed society forward by improving farming technology, this allowed societies to produce more food, this created a need for traders, and this created a need for accountants to keep track of surplus, and all of this required leaders to allocate it

Boserup's population pressure theory

civilization was just a response to population growth and population pressure

The Hydraulic state

created by Karl Wittfogel, the hierarchical power structure of states come from the management needs associated with large scale irrigation

Cairnero's theory concerning the organizational requirements of warfare

the hierarchical power structure of states comes from the management needs of warefare

Theories of the Mayan collapse

endemic warfare, failed agricultural system, external environmental factors (like droughts and hurricanes)

Maritime foundations hypothesis

thins happen in Peru before the New World is because of the tremendously rich frish resource base

Patrick Culbert's theory of the Mayan collapse

as the population rose it was hard for the Mayans to have an environment that could produce the agriculture needed to sustain a the population, also all of the agricultural fields were far from the city, so they might not have had enough workers to keep the crops healthy

Thomas Lynch

investigated Guittaro Cave

Esther Boserup

created the population pressure theory

Christy Turner

believed there was interpersonal violence and cannibalism going on in the Southwestern North America, noticed charnel deposits (processed human bones)

Tim White

also believed there was interpersonal violence and cannibalism going on in the Southwestern North America, noticed human bones were worn due to the rubbing against pots

Steven Lekson

created the theory that Chacao canyon is the center of a state

Jonathan Haas

one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, also noticed signs of violence in the Pueblo 3 period

Winnifred Creamer

one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, also noticed signs of violence in the Pueblo 3 period

Coronado

Spanish explorer who shows up not long after the collapse of the Hohokam

Quetzalcoatl

a feathered serpent god, worshipped by the Toltecs

Narmer

first Egyptian pharaoh (3100 b.c.)

King Tut

new kingdom pharaoh

V. Gordon Childe

created the "urban revolution" theory

Karl Wittfogel

created the hydrolic state theory

Robert Carneiro

created the warefare theory (hierarchical power of structure comes from the management needs of warefare)

Ruth Shady-Solis

one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, was the Peruvian one

Michael Moseley

created the Maritime foundations hypothesis

Michael Coe

studied the Mayan culture

Monteczuma

Aztec emperor, was taken over by Cortez

John Rick

investigated Chavin

Walter Alva

excavated burials by Moche at Sipan

Hernan Cortez

a Spanish explorer that conquered Moctezuma

Pizarro

conquered the Inca in 1534

Pachacuti

first powerful ruler of the Inca

Atahualpa

last ruler of the Incan people

Huascar

brother of Atahualpa, wasn't fully Incan, tried to get the empire over Atahualpa

Henges

circular ditches

Megaliths

large stone structures or groups of standing stones, large contructions involving one or muliple stones

Corporate burial mounds

mounds of earth, people were buried in there

Buff-colored pottery

(Hohokam) very first type of pottery, orangish

Gray pottery

(Anasazi), first truly well made pottery in the Southwest

Brown pottery

(Mogollon), often found in pithouses

Coprolites

fossilized poop

Hearths

the floor of a fireplace

Arrow points

used them with atlatls, sometimes they had poisonous tips

Pictographs

a picture representing a word or idea

Petroglyphs

a rock carving, art is pecked into the rocks

Pithouses

semi subterranean house, has post molds for vertical beams holding up a roof

Canals

an artificial waterway used to direct water to a certain area

Polychrome pottery

multicolored pottery, with a lot more elaborate symbolism

Kivas

used by Puebloans, a chamber that is partially or fully under ground, used for religous rights

Great kivas

large, round subsurface ceremonial structures, "prehistoric churches"

Pueblos

large community built above the ground

Great Houses

built by ancestral pueblo people

Chaco Roads

the Anasazi built major roads that connected the cities

Corrugated pottery

pottery with grooves in it, form of decoration

Charnel deposits

deposits of human bones that have been processed the same way that animal bones are

Quipu

nets, used to record information in knots

Lanzon

name for the most important statue in the Chavin culture in Peru

New kingdom tombs

pharaohs and elite would get a burial with riches and they would be buried in a pyramid

Monk's Mound

3rd largest prehistoric structure in the new world, 25,000 people at the height of occupancy

Midden

prehistoric garbage/waste

Palisade

a fence

Atlatl

precursor to the bow and arrow, was like and extended arm

Arrow points

sometimes the tips would be dipped in poison

Postholes

(postmolds), large holes in the ground where support beams could be inserted

Codices

an ancient manuscript text in book form

Temples

a building devoted to reglious worship

Ball courts

where the ball game was played, which was a game of life and death, prisoners were forced to play, losers would be sacrificed

Platform mounds

structures made out of Earth

Monumental architecture

architecture forms that symbolize power and authority

Urbanism

the lifestyle of city dwellers

Writing

a method of storing, manipulating, and sharing information

Clay and earthen flat-topped mounds

part of the Hopewell culture, buried to contain sacred objects or graves

Ziggurats

stepped pyramids that were temples

Huge stone heads

built by the Olmec in Mesoamerica

Hieroglyphic script

scripts written in hieroglyphs (symbols)

Divine kingship

a state religion where an emperor is worshipped as a demigod

Mayan calendar

begins 3114 b.c.

Pyramid of the sun

Teotihuacan pyramid, was the biggest one

Avenue of the Dead

Teotihuacan road, was one mile long, went through the city

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