process by which aerobic cells produce energy
overall, cellular respiration is a(n) ______ process
consists of adenosine (the adenine nucleotide and ribose) plus 3 phosphates; used by cells as an immediate source of energy
a catabolic process that produces a small amount of energy in the absence of oxygen
occurs in mitochondria, requires oxygen, consists of Kreb's Cycle and ETC
what is the net ATP product of aerobic respiration?
protein complex that sits within the cristae membrane; responsible for producing ATP as protons flow down a gradient
Electron Transport Chain
energy coupling reaction that creates H+ gradient in the cristae membrane; series of redox reactions
a process by which ATP is formed in mitochondria as protons flow down a proton gradient through the ATP Synthase complex in the cristae membrane
chemiosmosis is also known as the _______
occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell prior to aerobic respiration; breakdowns glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
what is the net ATP product of glycolysis?
process that produces a small amount of ATP during glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
enzyme used in substrate-level phosphorylation
chemiosmosis; produces ATP by using energy derived from the redox reactions of the ETC
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; carries electrons to the ETC from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle; oxidized form
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; carries electrons to the ETC from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle; reduced form; each one produces 3 ATP during the ETC
flavin adenine dinucleotide; carries electrons to ETC from Krebs Cycle; oxidized form; each one produces 2 ATP during the ETC
flavin adenine dinucleotide; carries electrons to ETC from Krebs Cycle; reduced form
gain of electrons or hydrogens
loss of electrons or hydrogens
proteins that help make up the ETC, similar in structure to hemoglobin but transport e- instead of oxygen
part of aerobic respiration; also known as citric acid cycle
raw material of Krebs Cycle; coenzyme A combined with pyruvate
3, 1, 1
each turn of the Krebs Cycle produces __ NADH, __ FADH2, and __ ATP
where does the ETC pump electrons to?
where does Krebs Cycle take place?
site of ETC and ATP Synthase
Ethyl Alcohol and CO2
alcohol fermentation converts pyruvate into what two substances?
in lactic acid fermentation, _________ from glycolysis is reduced to form ______ acid
in fermentation, NADH is ______ back to NAD+