AP U.S. History Unit 4: The Age of Jackson
|Era of Good Feelings|| -During Monroe's Presidency |
-Wanted to encourage good feelings
-Wanted to assert American Power on the World Stage
-Result: Panic of 1819
|Panic of 1819|| -Ended Era of Good Feelings|
-Caused by inflation, easy credit from banks, and massive land speculation in the West
-Result: Westerners hate bank and many people lost their jobs and the government tightened credit in loans and fueling mortgages resulted in 5-6 years of depression
|Missouri Compromise||-Allowed Missouri to be a slave state in exchange for Maine to be a free state and that any state north of the 36 30' border line would have no slavery|
|McCullough v Maryland|| -"Power to tax, power to kill." (1819)|
-States cannot tax the U.S. Bank
|Cohens v Virginia||-Supreme Court can review state court decisions (1821)|
|Gibbons v Ogden|| -The "Steamboat" Case (1824)|
-Federal government is in charge of interstate trade
|Fletcher v Peck||-A corrupt contract is still a contract (1810)|
|Dartmouth College v Woodward||-Ended with the ruling of saving sanctity of charters (1819)|
|Florida Purchase Treaty|| -Andrew Jackson's unauthorized invasion into Florida (1819)|
-Won Florida by us exchanging money and some claims for Texas to gain the rest of Florida
|Monroe Doctrine||-President policy that states no more colonization or intervention in the Western Hemisphere (1823)|
|Rise of Jacksonian Democracy|| -Many reforms such as school, women's rights, improving working conditions, and the increase in the Abolition movement. (1820s-1830s)|
-Jackson is referred to as the "Common Man."
|Election of 1824|| -All 5 running candidates are Republicans|
-Calhoun withdrew and ran for VP
-Jackson won both the popular and electoral voters
-Henry Clay dropped out and supported Adams and with his support John Quincy Adams becomes president.
|Corrupt Bargain||-Henry Clay backed out of the Election of 1824 and supported Adams which led to Adams becoming president (1825)|
-Adams made Clay his VP as a result
-Andrew Jackson and his fellow "Jacksonians," believed Jackson was cheated from the presidency and called this a "Corrupt Bargain."
-Caused a split between the Republican party. National Republicans (Adams) and Democratic Republicans (Jackson).
|Election of 1828|| -Adams v.s Jackson|
-West established a sense of power when the results of the political center of gravity gradually shifting more West.
-Jackson won the election.
|Spoils System||-Supporters rewarded with government jobs. (1829)|
|Tariff of 1828|| -Known as the "Tariff of Abominations," in the south.|
-Purpose of Tariff: To protect the North industry. The tariff was specifically on cheap international goods.
-Hurts the South who had to import those materials they did not produce.
|The Eaton Affair||-Mrs. Eaton remarried to John Eaton after his suicide. Eaton was a member of Jackson's cabinet who same many wives shunned Mrs. Eaton, which included John Calhoun's wife.|
-Jackson took this personally. (1829)
-Martin Van Buren's wife, however, did not shun Mrs. Eaton; therefore, Jackson liked Martin Van Buren much better and it was pretty much the deciding factor that Martin Van Buren will be the next president following Jackson and not Calhoun.
|Webster-Hayne Debate|| -Webster v.s Hayne (1830)|
-Debate over protection tariffs.
-Webster (MA) Favored protection tariffs.
-Hayne (SC) Did not favor protection tariffs.
|Nullification Crisis||-Began with the Tariff of 1832. (1832-33)|
-Senator of SC, John Calhoun, despised the Tariff of 1832 and threatened succession.
-Jackson responds by creating the Force Bill in 1833.
-Force Bill does not have to be used, because Henry Clay makes his Second Great Compromise and it was called the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
|Force Bill||-Gives any President the authority to send an army to any area and force them to pay a tariff. (1833)|
|Jackson and Indian Removal|| -Signed into law by Andrew Jackson in 1830. (1820s-1830s)|
-Southern states supported this law since they wanted to move into new territories and to specifically ease tension in Georgia.
-This forced relocation of the Indians moving to the West is called the "Trail of Tears."
|Jackson vetoes the Bank|| -Vetoed Second Bank of the U.S. (1832)|
-Reason: Jackson wanted to destroy it, because he sees it as a monopoly and he believes that the Bank is only an instrument of the wealthy.
|Election of 1832||-Andrew Jackson v.s. Henry Clay (Whig) v.s. William Wart (Anti-Masonic)|
-First election with a national nominating convention.
-Main issue: Re-charter of the Second Bank of the U.S.
-Masons: A semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles.
-Anti Masons: Reaction against the "elitism," of the Masons.
-Jackson won the election.
|Jackson kills the Bank||-Andrew Jackson wanted to support his "soft-faction" people in the West and South who voted for him by not renewing the Second U.S. Bank's charter, which would expire in 1836. (1833-1836)|
-Head of the Second U.S. Bank: Nicholas Biddle
-Jackson moved the federal government's money out of the Second U.S. Bank and into several different "wildcat banks."
-Biddle's radical tactics ended his chance of winning a charter of the Second U.S. Bank.
-Result: Panic of 1837 (During Martin Van Buren's presidency)
|Specie Circular||-Requirement made by Andrew Jackson in 1836 for all payments of land to be in gold and silver. (1836)|
|Panic of 1837|| -Financial crisis brought on by banks demanding payments of land to be in gold in silver (specie circular) and over speculation. |
-Result: 5 years of bank failures and unemployment and Martin Van Buren is looked down upon as the president during this time; therefore, people started calling him "Martin Van Ruin."
|Divorce Bill|| -Also known as the Independent Treasury Bill. (1840)|
-States the government's "divorce" from the bank.
-This created the Treasury.
|Texas Revolution|| -Armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in Texas. (1836)|
-Caused by Mexican President Lopez abolished the Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed the more centralizing Constitution of 1835 in its place.
-Result: Laws are unpopular in Mexico, which led to violence and secession movements in Mexican states.
|Immigration of the 1840s-1850s||-Number one cause was birth rate |
-Other main causes are major settlements from the Irish and the Germans.
-Irish significance: Brought over Roman Catholicism and made "machine" politics.
-German significance: Brought over Amish religions.
-Nativism was introduced which was the support for the temperance movement which was created by the American "Know-Nothing Party."
|Know-Nothing Party|| -Created by Nativism |
-Originally called the American party. (1850s)
-Significance: Contributed to the collapse of the existing party system and the creation of new national political alignments.
|Eli Whitney|| -Invented Cotton Gin|
-Importance: Brought prosperity to North and South; however, the South chained the cotton gin to "King Cotton," and slavery.
-Popularized interchangeable parts
-Result: Created the basis for mass production and the assembly line.
|Lowell System||-Paternalistic textile factory system in Massachusetts that employed young women from New England farms to increase efficiency, productivity, and profits. (1820s-30s)|
|Cult of Domesticity|| -Glorification of the homemaker (Early 19th century)|
-Created Domestic Feminism which stated that the women controlled the house to assort influence.
|Technology and the Western farmer|| -Western farmers could profit now with the growing manufacturing developments such as the steal plow and McCormick mower-reaper.(1830s)|
-Result: Led to expansion and cash crop farms. The flourishing farms in the West was why they were given the nickname of the Nation's "Bread Basket."
|National (Cumberland) Road|| -First road made by federal government money (Started 1811, Completed in 1852) |
-Went from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
|The Clermont|| -First steamboat used for American purposes.|
-Showed commercial viability by strengthening migration and trade.
-Vital to the West and South due to it speeding overseas travel and trade.
|Erie Canal||-Completed in 1825, this was a state built canal that was very profitable due to it revolutionizing America by trade and migration.|
-Main East-West link.
-Results: Urbanization of Great Lakers, formation of the Great American port in NYC, more industrialization in the Northeast, and it created canal-breakers.
|Early Railroads|| -B.O. Railroad (1st railroad) (1830s-1850s)|
-Advantages: Faster, cheaper, more versatile, and it would be most significant to continental economy.
-Obstacles: Opposition from canal breakers, and it was dangerous and unreliable.
|Transportation Revolution||-Population increase created things like the National (Cumberland) Road as well as canals, steamboats, and railroads. (Early 19th century)|
|Market Revolution|| -Act of producing goods to buy instead goods to buy instead of making them for oneself. (Early 19th century)|
-Result: More market-oriented economy with a national network of income/commerce.
|Second Great Awakening|| -A series of religious revivals. (Early 19th century)|
-Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sections.
-Revivals attracted women, blacks, and Native Americans
-Result: Promoted many reform movements to reform the social evils of society.
|Mormons|| -Created by the "Burned-over district," with New York and Joseph Smith in 1830. (1830s-1850s)|
-They then made a massive migration to Utah in the 1840s and Brigham Young was their leader after Smith died.
|Horace Mann||-Education Reform (1830s-1840s) |
-He pushed for universal public education which would turn students into disciplined republican citizens with traditional American morals and values.
-He made more tax-supported schools, paid to have better facilities and to pay teachers better, and extend the curriculum and the school year.
|Higher education for women|| -Horace Mann's education reform sprouts women's education. (1820s-1830s)|
-Result: Women being able to go into education as a result.
|Dorthea Dix|| -Led Prison Reform (1840s)|
-She altered public's perception against the debtor's prisons, capital, and corporal punishment.
-Better treatment of the mentally ill by making them penitentiaries or otherwise known as "houses of correction."
-Result: Led to reformatories and correctional facilities.
|Temperance|| -Movement that had the belief that alcohol is the root of many evils in society (1820s-1850s)|
-This movement was created to spread abstinence from alcohol.
|Seneca Falls|| -First Women's Rights Convention (1848)|
-Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton were the leaders who organized this convention.
|Oneida Community|| -Founded by Noyes, in 1848, who believed in religious perfectionism.|
-Practice communalism in which all of the possessions were shared and also practiced complex marriage in which the whole community was married to each other.
|Hudson River School|| -Founded by Thomas Cole in 1825. (1825-1880)|
-First native school of landscape painting in the U.S. attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition.
|Knickerbockers|| -A group of Romantics that were made up by Irving, Cooper, and Bryant.|
-Purpose: To use as much American literature as possible and to make American literature prominent throughout the world.
|Transcendentalist||-A 19th century movement which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition. (1830s-1840s)|
|Edgar Allan Poe|| -Literary Critic/Author/Poet (1820s-1850s)|
-The founder of the detective genre and sparked horror and emotional tension.
|Nathaniel Hawthorne||-Anti-Transcendentalist leader (1820s-1850s)|
-Descendant of Puritan settlers.
-Wrote books on how he did not like Brook Farm after having the experience of living in Brook Farm before and expression his hatred towards utopias.
-He wrote the Scarlet Letter that shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England Puritans by showing their cruelty towards a woman who has commit the crime of adultery.
|Herman Melville||-American Anti-Transcendentalist writer who wrote Moby-Dick in 1851. (1820s-1850s)|