What event would be predicted by the Bohr shift effect as the amount of carbon dioxide released from your tissues into the blood capillaries increased?
the amount of oxygen in venous blood would decrease.
If you found a skull in the woods & the teeth were fang-like, what type of food would you expect this animal to eat?
flesh of another animal.
Which of the four muscular chambers of the human heart directly propels blood into the systemic circulation?
When a patient has his gallbladder removed, what food type would a doctor recommend this patient consume in lower quantities?
Marine vertebrates are ____ to their environment.
What is the function of the shark rectal gland?
it is involved in osmoregulation.
Why are the renal artery & renal vein critical to the process of osmoregulation in vertebrates?
the renal artery delivers blood with nitrogenous waste to the kidney & the renal vein brings blood with less nitrogenous wastes away from the kidneys.
The force driving simple diffusion is ____ while the energy source for active transport is ____.
the concentration gradient; ATP.
Gas exchange in insects takes place across the epithelium of the tracheae. The tracheal system connects to the outside air by openings called spiracles. Muscles just inside each spiracle can control the opening to minimize water loss. What would happen if the muscles inside each spiracle were unable to function?
the insect would increase water consumption.
A rabbit taken from a meadow near sea level & moved to a meadow high on a mountainside would have some trouble breathing. Why?
the partial pressure of oxygen in the air at high elevations is lower than at sea level.
The process of breaking down food into smaller molecules is known as ____.
Tissues of sharks are isotonic to seawater, but their concentrations of sodium ions, potassium ions, & chloride ions in cells & extracellular fluids are similar to those of freshwater fishes. What can you infer about the movement of sodium & chloride in these animals?
sodium & chloride will diffuse through shark gills from seawater down their concentration gradient.
What is the importance of the mucins that are released by salivary glands?
They are glycoproteins that make food slippery enough to slide easily through the esophagus.
If you were to design a countercurrent exchange respiratory system in fish, which of the following would not be expected?
blood flows through the gills from anterior to posterior.
Over-the-counter medications for acid reflux or heartburn block the production of stomach acid. Which of the following cells are directly affected by this medication?
When you are jogging, your muscles are using more oxygen & releasing more carbon dioxide into the blood than when you are at home on the couch. Which of the following would occur during your jog?
the medullary respiratory center would increase the rate of breathing.
After a large meal the production of ____ will increase. After fasting the production of ____ will increase.
In a cross section through an artery & vein running parallel in your leg, which would be the artery?
the vessel with more muscle tissue in the wall.
Salmon eggs hatch in freshwater. The fish then migrate to the ocean &, after several years of feeding & growing, return to freshwater to breed. How can these organisms make the transition from freshwater to ocean water & back to freshwater?
different gill cells are involved in osmoregulation in freshwater than in salt water.
The products of filtration in the renal corpuscle enter the renal tubule through which of the following structures?
The loop of Henle dips into the renal cortex. This is an important feature of osmoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates because ____.
differential permeabilities of ascending & descending limbs of the loop of Henle are important in establishing an osmotic gradient.
What can mouthparts of an animal tell you about its diet?
mouthparts of animals are specialized to obtain desired food items efficiently.
You are most likely to observe coprophogy in which of the following animals?
Food & its products of degradation move through the alimentary canal by means of peristalsis. What is peristalsis?
rhythmicwaves of contraction of the muscular layer surrounding the alimentary canal that are responsible for moving contents of the lumen along the length of the digestive tract.
In flour beetles & desert locusts, how is water conserved?
water is transported into hindgut cells through endocytosis.
The main difference between respiration in terrestrial insects & in terrestrial vertebrates is that ____.
insects rely on their tracheal system to deliver oxygen in air to their tissues, whereas terrestrial vertebrates rely on their lungs to deliver oxygen to their tissues through the blood in their circulatory system.
Describe the process of ventilation.
the movement of air through lungs or gills.
Which is most likely to have mouthparts modified into long, thin, hollow extensions?
Amino acids, dipeptides, & sugars are transported from intestinal epithelial cells into circulation. Lipids are transported from the intestinal epithelium into ____.
the lymph system.
The filtrate formed in the renal corpuscle is analogous to the ____ formed in Malpighian tubules.
Malpighian tubules form pre-urine, which is further processed by which of the following anatomical structures?
What molecules are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into epithelial cells through simple diffusion?
When a cell is in equilibrium with its environment which of the following occurs for substances that can diffuse through the cell?
there is random movement of substances into & out of the cell.
Freshwater fish are hypertonic compared to their environment. To maintain homeostasis in this environment, they must ____.
excrete large quantities of water.
In what way does hemoglobin act as a buffer against changes in blood pH?
hemoglobin binds some of the excess protons released by carbonic acid.
Where does the chemical digestion of proteins begin?
in the stomach.
Why did scientists originally hypothesize that proteolytic enzymes like pepsin & trypsin are secreted in inactive form?
these proteolytic enzymes, in active form, would digest the very tissues that synthesize them.
What is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of proteins in the diet?
proteins serve a variety of functions, & the body does not store excess quantities of protein.
The oxygen content of water increases linearly with increase oxygen partial pressure while the oxygen content of blood increases in a sigmoidal fashion. Why?
hemoglobin shows cooperative oxygen binding.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of terms describing fluid movement throughout the vessels & tissues of the body, starting with the circulatory system?
blood--> interstitial fluid--> lymph--> blood.
Why is it more difficult to obtain enough oxygen via respiration from water than from the air?
the density of water makes ventilating the respiratory tissues more difficult.
What mechanisms play a role in regulating heart rate?
chemical messengers in the blood, such as epinephrine; nerves originating from the medulla; & pacemaker cells within the heart.
Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?
changing the force of heart contraction, adjusting the volume of blood contained in the veins, & constricting & relaxing sphincters in the walls of the arterioles.
Food being digested in the stomach is in a highly acidic environment. When the food is released from the stomach into the small intestine, why is the environment no longer acidic?
secretin increases the flow of bicarbonate ions from the pancreas into the small intestine to neutralize the stomach acid.
One of the waste products that accumulates during cellular functions is carbon dioxide. It is removed via the respiratory system. What is another waste product that accumulates during normal physiological functions in vertebrates?
uric acid, ammonia, & urea. all of the above are examples of waste products in vertebrates.