Discovering Psychology 5TH ED CH 5

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Vocabulary from Discovering Psychology 5th Edition Chapter 5

Learning

A process that produces a relatively enduing change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience (P. 184)

Conditioning

The process of learning associations between the environmental events and behavioral responses (P. 184)

Classical Conditioning

The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response (P. 186)

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning (P. 186)

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

The unlearned, reflexive response that i elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (P. 186)

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response (P. 186)

Conditioned Response (CR)

The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus (P. 186)

Stimulus Generalization

The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but to other similar stimuli as well (P. 189)

Stimulus Discrimination

The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli (P. 189)

Higher Order Conditioning (Second-Order)

A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus from one learning trial functions as the unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial; the second conditioned stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus (P. 189)

Extinction (Classical Conditioning)

Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (P. 189)

Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus (P. 189)

Behaviorism

School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning (P. 190)

Placebo Response

An individual's psychological and physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug; placebo effect (P. 194)

Taste Aversion

A classically conditioned dislike for, and avoidance of, a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food (P. 197)

Biological Preparedness

In learning theory, the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses (P. 197)

Law of Effect

Learning principle, proposed by Thorndike, that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, while response followed y a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation (P. 201)

Operant

Skinner's term for an actively emitted (or voluntary) behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences (P. 201)

Operant Conditioning

The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response (P. 201)

Reinforcement

The occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated (P. 201)

Positive Reinforcement

A situation in which a response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations (P. 202)

Negative Reinforcement

A situation in which a response results in the removal of,avoidance of, or escape from a punishing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations (P. 202)

Primary Reinforcer

A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species, such as food, water, or other biological necessities (P. 202)

Conditioned Reinforcer

A stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer; also called a secondary reinforcer (P. 202)

Punishment

The presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior being repeated (P. 204)

Punishment by Application

A situation in which an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus; also called positive punishment (P. 204)

Punishment by Removal

A situation in which an operant is followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus; also called negative punishment (P. 204)

Discrimitive Stimulus

A specific stimulus in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced, and in the absence of which a particular response is not reinforces (P. 207)

Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)

he experimental apparatus invented by B. F. Skinner to study the relationship between environmental events and active behaviors (P. 209)

Shaping

The operant conditioning procedure of selectively reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed (P. 209)

Continuous Reinforcement

A schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of a particular response is reinforced (P. 210)

Partial Reinforcement

A situation in which the occurrence of a particular response is only sometimes followed by a reinforcer (P. 210)

Extinction (Operant Conditioning)

Occurs when an emitted behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer (P. 210)

Partial Reinforcement Effect

The phenomenon in which behaviors that are conditioned using partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than behaviors that are conditioned using continuous reinforcement (P. 210)

Schedule of reinforcement

The delivery of a reinforcer according to a preset pattern based on the number of responses or the time interval between responses (P. 210)

Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a fix number of response has occurred (P. 210)

Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of responses, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial (P. 211)

Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule

A reinforcer in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after a a preset time interval has elapsed (P. 211)

Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial (P. 211)

Behavior Modification

The application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors (P. 212)

Cognitive Map

Tolman's term for the mental representation of the layout of a familiar environment (P. 214)

Latent Learning

Tolman's term for learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available (P. 214)

Learned Helplessness

A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behaviors (P. 216)

Instinctive Drift

The tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with the performance of an operantly conditioned response (P. 217)

Observable Learning

Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others (P. 218)

Mirror Neurons

A type of neuron that activates both when an action is performed and when the same action is perceived (P. 218)

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