25 SCWS Military Tactics/Warfare Mission

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105 terms · Common Corp and NMCB Specific current as of 2011

State the NMCB Mission

Responsive military construction support
1)horizontal and vertical construction while defending
2)Deploying an Air Det in 48 hours
3) conducting active defensive operations
4)Perform intermediate maintenance on organic and assigned equipment.

Define ROC

Required Operational Capability

Defin POE

Projected operational environment

Define MOB

Mobilization process, assembly, organization and application of the nations resources.

Discuss the role of an NMCB in support of amphibious operations

Cronstruct LZ's, FARP's, EPW holding facilities, casualty evacuation stations, construct and maintain beach roads.

Vision of the Seabees

We are the Seabees. We build and we fight. We are a professional team who provide quality construction and repair services
Combat ready construction force of choice in joint ops.
Continually improve our capabilities
Deliver quality, timely, cost-effective Engineer services.
Integral member of the Navy and Marine Corps Team.

Mission of the Seabees

With Compassion for others - we build; we fight - for peace with freedom. We provide the Navy, Marine Corps,Unified CINCs, and other customers with rapid contingency response, quality construction, disaster recovery support,and humanitarian assistance. We accomplish this through expeditionary units which are rapidly deployable, interoperable, self-sustaining, and capable of conducting defensive military operations

JOPES

Joint Operation Planning and Execution System

Discuss the battalion C2 within the MAGTF

NCD maintains ADCON, OPCON to the MAGTF, allowing the MAGTF to accomplish missions or tasks, deploy Seabee units, Retain or assign tactical control.

Discuss the batttalion C2 during joint operations.

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Describe the construction and the elements of a Hasty/skirmisher's position

Shallow pit that provides limited protection while firing from the prone position
Made quickly by scraping soil to build a shallow ridge, or parapet, between the rifleman and the enemy
Trench is body-length

Describe the construction and the elements of an improved one man fighting position

Made as small as possible to present smallest target to the enemy
Constructed with a water sump, firing step, grenade sump and parapet
Built as wide as the occupants shoulders, and as tall as the occupant standing on the firing step
Provides protection form tanks passing over

Describe the construction and the elements of an improved two man fighting position

Essentially two, one-person positions
Close proximity to buddy provides security
Allows one to rest while others sleeps
Since the position is longer than a one-person position, it provides less protection from tanks, bombing, strafing and shelling.

Explain the general rules of camouflage

o Take advantage of all available natural concealment
o Camouflage by altering the form, shadow, texture, and color of objects
o Camouflage against both ground and air observations
o Camouflage in constant and continuous

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Fighting positions

o Before beginning construction, not the terrain and vegetation. The goal is to camouflage the position to this same appearance.
o Obtain material from a wide area
o Do not use more material than needed
o Cover excavated soil with vegetation or dump in streams, ravines or under brush
o Inspect the position form the enemy's viewpoint
o Vary your route to avoid making paths to the position

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Personal equipment

Field uniforms and equipment are colored to blend in with terrain. Faded or shiny items need to be surveyed or darkened with paint.
When op paint is not available, use mud, charcoal, or crushed grass.
Alter the outline of your helmet with a cloth cover or foliage

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to the Individual

All exposed skin, even dark skin, reflects light.
Apply face paint sticks whenever possible, using the following combinations:
- Loam & light green for light skin personnel in other than snow regions
- Sand & dark green for dark skinned personnel in other than snow regions
- Loam & white for all personnel in snow regions

Describe applying camouflage paints

Paint shiny areas (forehead, cheeks, nose, chin, hands, wrists, neck) with the darker color
Paint shadow areas (around eyes, under nose and chin) with the lighter color.
Use the buddy system to check application
When paint is not available, use burnt cork, charcoal or lampblack

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to vehicles

If possible, park under natural cover
Park so the vehicle shape will disappear into natural surroundings
When cut foliage is used ensure it is placed as it grows. The undersides of leaves are lighter than the top.
Replace as soon as it begins to wither

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Drape nets/Camouflage Nets

Easily assemble and provide adequate concealment against direct observation
Can be detected by photographic observation because the artificial camouflage does not blend in with the background completely.

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Buildings

Vary rooflines with wooden framework, then cover with burlap or fine-mesh netting
Erect superstructures over new building to make it resemble surrounding native buildings
For existing structures
- Cover with screens of garnished netting
- Paint disruptive patterns over netting, roof, and gable-end walls
- When the slope of a roof is greater than 30 degrees, netting must cover the whole building.
- Paint roofs to match surrounding terrain

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Supply points

Pick spots with good natural overhead cover. Minimize changes to the appearance of the terrain.
Avoid large concentrations of material so Unload and disperse supplies as quickly as possible
Supply point access roads
- Access roads and tracks running in and out of the point can be concealed by slinging netting between trees.
- Control traffic to avoid large convoys
- Control debris, such as empty boxes, so it does not accumulate and give the position away.

Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Water points

Must camouflage storage tanks, pumps, purification equipment, and personnel
Place burlap covers or foliage over shiny surfaces.
Conceal open areas where vehicles or personnel will have to traverse to get to a water point
Institute a water supply schedule to avoid a concentration of waiting vehicles or personnel

Difference between cover and concealment

Cover
- Protection from enemy fire
- A hill is natural cover
- A parapet is artificial cover
Concealment
- Protection from observation
- Bushes, grass, and shadows are natural concealment
- Burlap, tents, or nets are artificial concealment

State what action should be taken if you are caught in the light of a ground or overhead flare

Overhead flares
- When an overhead flare goes off, immediately seek cover as low as possible and do not move until the light burns out
Ground flares
- Move quickly and quietly out of the light

Discuss the military aspects of terrain as it applies to a defensive force.

Various combinations of weather and topography give certain qualities to an area. These qualities known as the Military Aspects of Terrain
Physical reconnaissance is most reliable, but additional resources include:
 Arial reconnaissance and photographs
 Maps of the area
 Terrain models provided by higher authority
 Intelligence reports
 Patrolling
 Friendly natives, undercover agents, or captured prisoners

KOCOA

Key Terrain
Observation and Fields of Fire
Cover and concealment
Obstacles
Avenues of approach

Explain the procedures for basic land navigation using a map and lensatic compass

• With a Compass Rose (picture of compass card)
o Place map on a flat surface
o Place an open Lensatic compass on the map's compass rose with the sighting wire lying directly over the map's magnetic north line.
o Turn the map and compass together until the north arrow of the compass is aligned with the index line of the compass
o The map is now orientated

State the five basic colors used and how they applied to a military map

• Black: Man-made features and cultural areas
• Blue: water features such as lakes and rivers
• Green: vegetation
• Red-Brown: all relief features such as contour lines
• Red: main roads, built up areas and special features, enemy positions

Describe the grid system on all military maps

o Grids are two sets of equally spaced, parallel, straight lines intersecting at right angles, forming a series of squares
o Read the coordinates RIGHT and UP and add them after the respective set of principle digits

Accuracy of a 4 digit grid

1 KM

Accuracy of a 6 digit grid

100 m

Accuracy of an 8 digit grid

10 m

Accuracy of a 10 digit grid

1 m

First two digits of Military Grid Reference System

grid-zone designation 6 degrees wide and 8 degrees high
Digit followed by a uppercase letter.

Second 2 digits of a Military Grid Reference System

100,000-meter square identification
2 Letters that show the 100 km area within the grid-zone designation

Explain resection and intersection

• Resection: Locating the unknown position of the user by sighting on two or three known features
• Intersection Locating an unknown point by successively occupying at least two, but preferably three, known positions and sighting on the unknown point

How many degrees and mils are on a compass

360 degrees
6400 mils

How many degrees is each click of the bezel ring

3 degrees
53 1/3 mils

Define BAMCIS

• Begin planning
• Arrange for reconnaissance and coordination
• Make the reconnaissance
• Complete the plan
• Issue the Patrol Order
• Supervise preparations

What actions are completed in "Begin the planning"

Plan use of time
Begin analyzing the mission.
Formulate a preliminary plan
Issue the Patrol Warning Order

What actions are completed in "Arrange for reconnaissance and coordination"

Arrange for where, when, and how unit will be moved
Prepare a schedule for reconnaissance as time and situation permit
After the platoon commander's briefing, make arrangements to coordinate with adjacent unit leaders, leaders of supporting units, and other unit leaders as necessary.

What actions are completed in "Make the reconnaissance"

Continue the estimate of the situation
Complete terrain analysis, to include KOCOA
Note the effects of the terrain on the preliminary plan
Reject, adopt, and alter the plans as necessary

What actions are completed in "Complete the plan"

Review the preliminary plan
Prepare notes to use when issuing the order
Use the following to make final decisions:
a. Routes of approach
b. Location and strength of available squad security
c. Where the enemy will be located
d. Method of attack

What actions are completed in "Issue the Patrol Order"

Brief the subordinate leaders on the terrain
2. Issue the order, to include:
a. Description of the situation
1. enemy forces
2. location and mission of friendly forces
3. unit attachments and detachments
b. Brief statement of the mission
c. Execution of the mission
d. Instructions and information pertaining to administration and logistics
e. Commands and signals

What actions are completed in "Supervise preparations"

Coordinate and issue guiding instructions to ensure that the mission is accomplished correctly and on time.
Review rehearsals.

Define a SALUTE report

o Size of the enemy unit
o Activity of the enemy
o Location of the enemy unit
o Uniform worn by the enemy
o Time of each activity noted
o Equipment used or carried by the enemy

Define a SPOT report

Detailed report of an enemy engagement
Always follow a SALUTE up with a SPOT report after engagement has ended
Report includes
 All information contained in a SALUTE
 Friendly and enemy KIA or WIA
 POW's and enemy equipment

Difference between a Security and Reconnaissance patrol

Security Patrols
o Provide physical security
Reconnaissance patrols
o Defensive technique used to
Detect enemy movement toward the unit's position
Locate or observe an enemy position
Discover enemy avenues of approach

What are the three types of reconnaissance patrols

Route, Area, and Zone

Describe a route patrol

a directed effort to obtain detailed information of a specified route and all terrain from which the enemy could influence movement along that route.

Describe a Area patrol

a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area such as a town, ridge line, woods, or other features critical to operations

Describe a zone patrol

a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning all routes, obstacles, terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries.

What is a combat patrol

missions that usually include engaging the enemy. They are fighting patrols. Combat patrols are employed in both the offensive and defensive combat operations

What are the types of combat patrols

Raid, Contact, Ambush, Security, and Urban

State the twelve patrol planning and preparations steps

1) Study the mission, 2)Plan use of time
3) Study the terrain and situation, 4) Organize the patrol
5) Select personnel, weapons, and equipment
6) Issue the warning order, 7) Coordinate,
8) Make reconnaissance, 9) Complete detailed plans,
10) Issue patrol order, 11) Supervise, inspect, rehearse, and re-inspect,12) Execute the mission

What are the three echelons of a defense

Security Area
o Area in front of FDA
o Security patrols roam this area
o Listening/observation posts are placed here
Forward Defense Area (FDA)
o Area where frontline defensive positions are dug
Reserve Area
o Area behind FDA that reserve forces occupy

What are the 6 elements for a call for indirect fire

• Observer identification
• Target location
• Method of engagement
• Warning order
• Target description
• Method of fire and control

What are the Fire commands for direct weapons

ADDRAC
• Alert- alert the unit that a command is coming
• Direction- indicate the target's location
• Description- Give a very brief description of the target
• Range- To the target to be engaged
• Assignment- Tell who is to fire on the target
• Control- (fire control) give the signal to open fire

What are the three types of missions when you call for fire?

Polar, Grid, and Shift.
Grid is used for a 6- or 8-digit coordinate (an 8-digit grid preferred).
Polar is used for observer to target direction, distance, and up/down vertical shift (if greater than 30 meters).
Shift used for observer to target direction, left/right lateral shift, add/drop range shift, and up/down vertical shift (if greater than 30 meters).

Describe a 9 line Close air support brief

Begin point, Heading, Distance
Target elevation, target description, Target location
Marking type, location of friendlies, Egress

Name the 3 combat positions on a fire plan sketch

-Primary firing position
Backbone of the defense, receives the full force of the enemy's attack
-Alternate firing position
Fall back position
Should have the same sector of fire as primary
-Supplementary firing position
Sector of fire covers the flank or rear

6 S's - T regarding POW's

Search: for weapons and documents
Secure: ensure escape is impossible
Silence: do not allow EPW's to talk to each other
Segregate: into groups by rank, gender, and status
Speed: timely deliver of information obtained from EPW's
Safeguard: protect EPW's from harm
Tag

Describe Fire Discipline

The ability to select and designate targets.
Preserve element of surprise by opening fire at the desired moment only
Regulate the rate of fire
Shift from one target to another
Adjust and cease-fire

THREATCON ALPHA

This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities. The nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of THREATCON BRAVO

THREATCON BRAVO

This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities.

THREATCON CHARLIE

This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel facilities and is imminent. Implementation of measures in this THREATCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel.

THREATCON DELTA

This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely.

Describe circumstances when deadly force would normally be authorized

Deadly force is only used as a last resort
Authorized under the following conditions:
o Self defense or defense of others when lesser means will not work
o Defense of property vital to national security
o Defense of property dangerous to others (weapons, ammunition, etc)
o To prevent the escape of a prisoner likely to cause death or serious bodily injury to another

Discuss who defines rules of engagement

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff defines rules of engagement
During military attacks against the US and
During ALL military operations, contingencies, and terrorist attacks occurring outside US territory
Not to be confused with Rules for Use of Force (peacetime operations within US territory)
Everyone is responsible for enforcing ROE.

Describe the three classes of wire entanglement

-Tactical wire
Used to hamper enemy aggression
Placed along the front of the defensive line
-Protective wire
Prevents close surprise attacks
around each fighting position at grenade range (-50 meters)
- Supplementary wire
Placed to conceal the exact line of tactical wire

Describe Triple strand concertina fence

o Consists of two lines of concertina serving as the base, with a third resting on top
o On average, a platoon can place 984 foot section in an hour

Describe Double Apron fence

4 and 2 pace fence, which is more common and more effective, and 6 and 3 pace fence
A 984 foot section usually requires 1 ½ hours for a platoon to complete

Describe Low wire entanglement

o A 4 and 2 pace double apron fence constructed with medium pickets instead of long pickets in the fence center line
o Used when concealment of the barrier is essential

Describe tangle foot

Used to slow enemy movement

Discuss SURVIVAL when isolated in an enemy area

Size up the situation
Undue haste makes waste
Remember where you are
Vanquish fear and panic
Improvise
Value living
Act like the natives
Learn the basic skills

Discuss Evasion when isolated in an enemy area

Know the enemy's location!
Look for signs of group movement,
Look for workers in the field, indicates no immediate threat
Absence of children in a village, possible pending action
Absence of young men in a village
Be patient, cautious, and avoid overconfidence
Conserve strength by avoiding exhaustion
Retain items of identification such as dog tags.
Use firearms only in an emergency
Avoid people as long as possible

Discuss Column fire team formations

Used when speed and control are governing factors
Favorable for fire and maneuver to either flank
Vulnerable to fire from the front because it's own fire in that direction is limited.

Discuss Wedge fire team formations

Used when the enemy contact is possible, but not certain
Provides all around protection, flexibility and is easy to control

Discuss Skirmishers fire team formations

Used when assaulting a known enemy position
Because the fire teams are in line, it provides maximum fire power to the front
Hard formation to control

Discuss Echelon fire team formations

Used primarily to protect an exposed flank
Permits heavy firepower to the front and the direction of the echelon
Hard formation to control and slow moving

Discuss the fundamentals of a successful ambush.

Surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or temporarily halted target.
Success of an ambush is contingent upon:
o Early warning of target approach
o Holding fire until target is in the kill zone
o Open fire at proper time
o Lifting or shifting supporting fires
o Initiation of the correct action if the ambush is compromised
o Timely and orderly withdrawal from ambush site

Discuss immediate actions during enemy contact in a convoy.

• Drivers attempt to drive through the killing zone.
• Personnel return fire immediately.
• When vehicles are clear of the killing zone, they are halted. Occupants dismount and take immediate offensive action against the enemy positions.
• Subsequent vehicles approaching the killing zone halt short of the zone. Occupants debark and take immediate offensive action against the enemy positions.

Describe immediate actions of a chance contact during a Patrol

Chance contact, where you come across the enemy unexpectedly
o Break contact and continue with mission. Patrol leader will call out direction and distance to break contact towards.
o Fire and movement. One group fires while the other moves off, alternating until withdrawn.

Describe immediate actions of a near ambush during a Patrol

Seabees in the killing zone, without order or signal, assault the ambush position.
People not in the killing zone maneuver against the attack force as directed.

Describe immediate actions of a far ambush during a Patrol

People in the killing zone without order or signal return fire while seeking cover
People outside the killing zone maneuver against the ambush force.
Break contact or continue to assault the position.

What are the lines on a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 1. Location of the pick-up site.
Line 2. Radio frequency, call sign, and suffix.
Line 3. Number of patients by precedence:
Line 4. Special equipment required:
Line 5. Number of patients:
Line 6. Security at pick-up site:
Line 7. Method of marking pick-up site:
Line 8. Patient nationality and status:
Line 9. NBC Contamination:

Line 3 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 3. Number of patients by precedence:
A - Urgent
B - Urgent Surgical
C - Priority
D - Routine
E - Convenience

Line 4 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 4. Special equipment required:
A - None
B - Hoist
C - Extraction equipment
D - Ventilator

Line 5 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 5. Number of patients:
A - Litter
B - Ambulatory

Line 6 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 6. Security at pick-up site:
N - No enemy troops in area
P - Possible enemy troops in area (approach with caution)
E - Enemy troops in area (approach with caution)
X - Enemy troops in area (armed escort required)
* In peacetime - number and types of wounds, injuries, and illnesses

Line 7 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 7. Method of marking pick-up site:
A - Panels
B - Pyrotechnic signal
C - Smoke signal
D - None
E - Other

Line 8 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 8. Patient nationality and status:
A - US Military
B - US Civilian
C - Non-US Military
D - Non-US Civilian
E - EPW

Line 9 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request

Line 9. NBC Contamination:
N - Nuclear
B - Biological
C - Chemical
* In peacetime - terrain description of pick-up site

Discuss the effectiveness and employment of early warning devices and pyrotechnics

Trip flares provide illuminate and to give warning of attacking or infiltrating enemy troops. Normally, it is placed in the path of, and activated by, an advancing enemy. They have little application other than defensive applications
M49 trip flare resembles a hand grenade in size and shape, except that it is provided with a bracket for attachment

What are the sections of the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Mission Requirements
Reconnaissance
Route Selection
Liaison and Coordinate
Convoy Organization
Movement plan
Security En route
Service support
Communications

What are some of the Mission Requirements on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Current Intelligence/Situation
Task Vehicles: Type and Quantity
Personnel
Cargo by Type, Class, and Size
Security Vehicles: Type and Quantity
Maintenance Vehicles
Materials Handling Equipment
Command and Control Vehicles: Type and quantity
Lighting/Blackout Conditions/NVGs

What are some of the Route Selection points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Road
Bridges and Tunnels
Grades and Curves
Traffic Density
Requirements for Route Preparation or Repair

What are some of the Liaison and coordination points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Units along Route
Units Being Moved
Supporting Units
Highway Control Agencies/Movement Control Centers
shippers/Cargo Handlers
Engineer/explosive ordnance disposal requirements

What are some of the convoy organization points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Size of Serials/March Units
Type of Column
Operating Gaps
Serials/March Units
Vehicles
Positions of Security and Supporting Units
Positions of Control Personnel/Escorts Guides
Organization for Command
Vehicle Marking

What are some of the Movement plan points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Controlled Route, Convoy Clearance/Movement Credit
Road Movement Table, Special Permits or Authorization
Distance, Time, and Rate of Movement, Trip Distance, Required Start Time, Column Length, Slowest Vehicle
Required Delivery Time, Rate of Movement/Speed, Maximum Catch-up Speed, Loading, Report to, Type/Class Cargo, Outsize Loads, Materials Handling Equipment Required, Blocking, Bracing, and Cargo Restraints, Staging, Vehicle Checks, Cargo Checks, Time to Start Point, Operator Briefing, Location/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics, Checkpoints

What are some more of the Movement plan points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Locations/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics/
Guides and Markers, Positions, Posting and Pickup, Halts
Purpose, Time Duration, Locations, Maintenance
Trail, Enroute Support, Medical Support, Organic Capability
Evacuation, Release Point, Location/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics, Report Requirements, Control of Vehicles and Operators, Unloading, Time and Place
Report to HHQ at Destination, Materials Handling Equipment Required, Backload and Turn Around

What are some more of the Enroute security points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Action in event of attack
Air Attack
Artillery Attack
Ground Attack
Sniper
Air Support Procedures
Fire Support Procedures
Use of Lights/Blackout Restrictions

What are some more of the service support points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Fuel
Location/Times
Types and Quantity
Accompanying Convoy
Messing/Rations
Locations/Times
Units on Route
Prescribed Loads

What are some more of the communications points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist

Convoy Control Net
Serial/March Unit Commanders
Parent Unit/Headquarters
Alert/Broadcast Net
Security/Tactical Nets
Fire and Air Support Nets
Medical Evacuation
Visual Signals
Sound Signals
Interpreter Requirements

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