the time before any written records are found
is the scientific study of human culture and humanity (the relationship between man and his culture)
is the scientific study of past human cultures by studying the remains (artifacts and fossils) they left behind
are objects made and used by humans
are the remains or imprints of living things that existed millions of years ago
*side note- these may include parts of plants, feathers, bones and even footprints
What are the 4 steps archaeologists follow when researching a site?
1st- locate a site where people may have lived long ago
2nd- survey the site starting with detailed description with
notes, maps, photographs, and artifacts
3rd- excavate by digging for buried objects or by diving and
working in submersible decompression chambers, when
4th- record and preserve the evidence for eventual
classification, and dating
both living things and rocks contain radioactive elements that decay or disappear over time. By measuring the amount of radioactive material left in an object, scientists can tell when it was formed
Although written records go back about 4,500 years, scientists have pieced together evidence that documents the existence of humans (or "man apes") as much as 600,000 years ago. First manlike creatures arose in many parts of the world about 1 million years ago
Where do most scientists believe that humankind first appeared?
What did Michael Brunet (broo nay) discover?
he found a worn brown human like skull in the African country of Chad. Tests showed the skull to be nearly 7 million years old. The oldest fossil ever found.
*side note- this has raised many questions because Chad is in central Africa and many scientists believed humankind started in East Africa.
also known as the Old Stone Age and dates back to about 1 million years ago
*side note- "Paleo" means old or ancient
"Lithic" means pertaining to or consisting of stone
Artifacts of the Old Stone Age include?
hatchets, awls, needles, and cutting tools
also knows as the New Stone Age and dates back to 6,000 - 8,000 B.C.
*side note- "neo" means new, recent, revived, or modified
Artifacts of the New Stone Age include?
polished tools, domesticated animals, the wheel, and some agriculture
*side note- pottery and textiles have been found dating to the end of the New Stone Age
lived by hunting small animals and gathering plants
people who moved from place to place as the seasons changed
*side note- they usually followed game herds, and or fertile lands (crops, plants)
dates back to about 3,200 B.C.- 1,200 B.C.
What was the "Bronze Age"?
a period in the history of humankind, following the Stone Age and preceding the Iron Age, during which bronze weapons and tools were used
*side note- bronze is made by combining copper and tin
Prerequisites of civilization
1. use of metals rather than stone for tools and weapons
2. a system of writing
3. a calendar
4. a territorial state organized on the basis of residence in the
dates back to about 1,200 B.C. - 332 B.C.
What was the "Iron Age"?
the period following the Bronze Age characterized by the extremely rapid spread of iron tools and weapons, which began in the Middle East about 1200 B.C.
first appeared about 100,000 years ago. "Homo sapiens" means "wise people", first modern humans
a group of people that appeared in Europe and parts of Asia about 200,000 years ago
*side note- their name comes from the Neander Valley in present day Germany, where their fossil remains were first discovered
When and where were the earliest known civilizations developed?
the Tigris-Euphrates Valley of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and the Nile Valley of Egypt between 4000 B.C. and 3000 B.C.
*side note- these early civilizations are known as fluvial civilizations
What is a fluvial civilization?
a civilization that arose in a river valley
What was the Fertile Crescent?
a region of fertile land that stretched in a large curve "crescent" from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. It was bounded on the West by the Mediterranean Sea, The Arabian Desert to the South, the Taurus Mountains to the North, and the Zagros Mountains Mountains to the East.