Acid Base Balance

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pH

Term used to denote hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids

Acid

Substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution

Base

Substance that binds to hydrogen ions in solution

Acidosis

Condition in which the human body's pH levels fall below 7.35

Alkalosis

Condition in which the human body's pH levels rise above 7.45

Carbon Dioxide

Mixes with water in the blood to form carbonic acid

Normal range of pH levels of blood and tissue fluids in the human body

Broad range: 7.35-7.45, Narrow range: 7.38-7.42

Difference between a strong acid and a weak acid

Strong acid has complete dissociation. Weak acid retains some hydrogen ions.

Difference between a strong base and a weak base

Strong base - all the sites have hydrogen ions attached to it. Weak base - have some open site.

Respiratory acidosis

Decrease in pH. Increase in bicarbonate.

Respiratory alkalosis

Increase in pH. Decrease in bicarbonate.

Metabolic acidosis

Decrease in amount of bicarbonate

Metabolic alkalosis

Increase in amount of bicarbonate

What are the body's two major physiological buffer system for compensating acid and base imbalances?

Bicarbonate and phosphate

Causes of respiratory acidosis

Hypoventilation, parasympathetic drug, re-breathing

Causes of respiratory alkalosis

Hyperventilation, shock, high altitude

What happens to blood pH levels during hyperventilation? Why?

Increase in pH because the individual is releasing too much CO2 (partial pressure CO2 decrease)

What happens to blood pH levels during rebreathing? Why?

Decrease in blood pH levels. Retain too much CO2 (pp CO2 increase)

As respiration increases, does the partial pressure of CO2 increase or decrease?

Hyperventilation, pCO2 decrease

As respiration increases, does the pH levels rise or fall?

Increase in pH levels

As respiration decreases, does the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increase or decrease?

Hypoventilation, pCO2 increase

As respiration decreases, does the pH levels rise or fall?

Decrease pH level

How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory acidosis?

Increase in hydrogen concentration because decrease in pH so increase renal secretion of hydrogen

How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory alkalosis?

Increase in pH means decrease in hydrogen concentrion so increase renal absorption of hydogens

What are some causes of metabolic acidosis?

Diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, exercise (make lactic acid)

What are some causes of metabolic alkalosis?

Vomiting

Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic acidosis

Decrease in pH so high hydrogen concentration. Hyperventilation - alkalosis to compensate for acidosis

Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic alkalosis

Increase in pH so low hydrogen concentration. Hypoventilation - compensate acidosis for alkalosis.

Explain how the renal system compensates for metabolic acidosis

Incrase renal secretion of hydrogen

Explain how the renal system compensates for metabolic alkalosis

Increase renal reabsorption of hydrogen. Increase in bicarbonate would lead to an increase in secretion of bicarbonate.

As the metabolic rate increases, what happens to the respiratory rate

Produce more CO2, increase respiratory rate

As the metabolic rate increases, what happens to the pCO2?

Increase

As the metabolic rate increases what happens to the pH levels of the blood?

Decrease because make more hydrogen

As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the respiratory rate?

Make less CO2, decrease respiratory rate.

As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the pCO2?

Decrease

As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the pH levels in the blood?

Increase because less hydrogen lying around

Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the pCO2 was lowered

Decreased concentration of ions in urine because all the ions are in the blood

Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the pCO2 was raised

Increased in ions in urine so ions are being secreted.

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