Term used to denote hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids
Substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution
Substance that binds to hydrogen ions in solution
Condition in which the human body's pH levels fall below 7.35
Condition in which the human body's pH levels rise above 7.45
Mixes with water in the blood to form carbonic acid
Normal range of pH levels of blood and tissue fluids in the human body
Broad range: 7.35-7.45, Narrow range: 7.38-7.42
Difference between a strong acid and a weak acid
Strong acid has complete dissociation. Weak acid retains some hydrogen ions.
Difference between a strong base and a weak base
Strong base - all the sites have hydrogen ions attached to it. Weak base - have some open site.
Decrease in pH. Increase in bicarbonate.
Increase in pH. Decrease in bicarbonate.
Decrease in amount of bicarbonate
Increase in amount of bicarbonate
What are the body's two major physiological buffer system for compensating acid and base imbalances?
Bicarbonate and phosphate
Causes of respiratory acidosis
Hypoventilation, parasympathetic drug, re-breathing
Causes of respiratory alkalosis
Hyperventilation, shock, high altitude
What happens to blood pH levels during hyperventilation? Why?
Increase in pH because the individual is releasing too much CO2 (partial pressure CO2 decrease)
What happens to blood pH levels during rebreathing? Why?
Decrease in blood pH levels. Retain too much CO2 (pp CO2 increase)
As respiration increases, does the partial pressure of CO2 increase or decrease?
Hyperventilation, pCO2 decrease
As respiration increases, does the pH levels rise or fall?
Increase in pH levels
As respiration decreases, does the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increase or decrease?
Hypoventilation, pCO2 increase
As respiration decreases, does the pH levels rise or fall?
Decrease pH level
How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory acidosis?
Increase in hydrogen concentration because decrease in pH so increase renal secretion of hydrogen
How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory alkalosis?
Increase in pH means decrease in hydrogen concentrion so increase renal absorption of hydogens
What are some causes of metabolic acidosis?
Diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, exercise (make lactic acid)
What are some causes of metabolic alkalosis?
Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic acidosis
Decrease in pH so high hydrogen concentration. Hyperventilation - alkalosis to compensate for acidosis
Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic alkalosis
Increase in pH so low hydrogen concentration. Hypoventilation - compensate acidosis for alkalosis.
Explain how the renal system compensates for metabolic acidosis
Incrase renal secretion of hydrogen
Explain how the renal system compensates for metabolic alkalosis
Increase renal reabsorption of hydrogen. Increase in bicarbonate would lead to an increase in secretion of bicarbonate.
As the metabolic rate increases, what happens to the respiratory rate
Produce more CO2, increase respiratory rate
As the metabolic rate increases, what happens to the pCO2?
As the metabolic rate increases what happens to the pH levels of the blood?
Decrease because make more hydrogen
As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the respiratory rate?
Make less CO2, decrease respiratory rate.
As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the pCO2?
As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the pH levels in the blood?
Increase because less hydrogen lying around
Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the pCO2 was lowered
Decreased concentration of ions in urine because all the ions are in the blood
Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the pCO2 was raised
Increased in ions in urine so ions are being secreted.