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tunic(s) of capillaries tunica interna

tunica interna

bulky middle tunic contains smooth muscle and elastin tunica media

tunica media

its smooth surface decreases resistance to blood flow tunica interna

tunica interna

tunic(s) of arteries and veins

tunica interna; tunica media; tunica externa

tunic that is especially thick in elastic arteries

tunica media

the arterial system has one of these; the venous system has two

brachiocephalic

these arteries supply the myocardium

coronary

two paired arteries serving the brain

internal carotid, vertebral

longest vein in the lower limb greater saphenous

greater saphenous

artery on the dorsum of the foot checked after leg surgery

dorsalis pedis

serves the posterior thigh deep femoral

deep femoral

supplies the diaphragm

phrenic

formed by the union of the radial and ulnar arteries brachial artery

brachial artery

2 superficial veins of the arms basilic; cephalic

basilic; cephalic

artery pair serving the kidney

renal arteries

veins draining the liver

right and left hepatic veins

artery that supplies the distal half of the large intestine via several branches

inferior mesenteric

drains the pelvic organs

internal iliac

what the external iliac artery becomes on entry into the thigh

femoral

major artery serving the arm

brachial

supplies most of the small intestine

superior mesenteric

join to form the inferior vena cava

common iliac

an arterial trunk that has three major branches, which run to the liver, spleen and stomach

celiac trunk

major artery serving the tissues external to the skull

external carotid

three veins serving the leg

fibular; anterior tibial; posterior tibial

artery generally used to take the pulse at the wrist

radial

The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins?

splenic vein and superior mesenteric

What 3 organs does the splenic vein drain?

spleen, pancreas and greater curvature of stomach

What 2 organs does the superior mesenteric drain?

small intestine and ascending colon

Which vein drains the lesser curvature of the stomach and empties directly into the hepatic portal vein?

gastric vein

What 2 paired arteries enter the skull to supply the brain?

internal carotids and vertebral arteries

What name is given to the communication network that has branches of the internal carotids and the vertebral arteries that cooperate to form a ring of blood vessels encircling the pituitary gland at the base of the brain?

Circle of Willis

What part of the brain is served by the anterior and middle cerebral arteries?

cerebrum

Both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries arise from the internal _____ arteries?

carotid

Which blood vessels have intimate contact with the tissue cells?

capillaries

Why do veins have valves but arteries dont?

Skeletal muscle "milking action" and changes in thoracic cavity pressure during breathing

What are artery walls proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?

Arteries must withstand high pressure and veins dont

What do the pulmonary arteries carry and to where?

oxygen-poor blood to the lungs

What do the pulmonary veins carry and to where?

oxygen-rich blood to the left heart

What do most arteries carry?

oxygen-rich blood

What do most veins carry?

oxygen-poor blood

What is the exception to the fact that most arteries carry oxygen rich blood?

the pulmonary arteries

What is the exception to the fact that most veins carry oxygen poor blood?

the pulmonary veins

How do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from the systemic arteries?

The pulmonary arteries are more like veins anatomically with relatively thin walls, as the pulmonary circulation is a low pressure bed

What is the source of blood in the hepatic portal system?

blood drained from the digestive viscera

Why is the hepatic portal blood carried to the liver b4 it enters the systemic circulation?

BC it is rich in nutrients and the liver is responsible for maintaining proper blood concentrations of glucose, proteins, etc. and its phagocytes rid the body of debris

What is the function of the circle of Willis?

Provides an alternate set of pathways for blood to reach brain tissue in case of impaired blood

What is the first branch of the aortic arch?

brachiocephalic trunk

What is the largest artery of the body?

the aorta

Which artery divides to form an internal carotid artery which serves the brain, and an external carotid artery?

common carotid artery

What artery supplies the extracranial tissues of the neck and head via its superficial temporal, ophthalmic, maxillary, facial, and occipital arterial branches?

the external carotid artery

Which artery serves the cerebellum, part of the brain stem and the posterior cerebral hemispheres?

vertebral artery

What artery serves the upper limb?

axillary artery

The brachial artery subdivides into which 2 arteries, which supply the forearm and hand?

radial and ulnar arteries

Which artery supplies the stomach?

left gasric artery

Which artery supplies the spleen?

splenic artery

Which artery supplies the stomach via the right gastric artery,and the duodenum, and pancreas?

common hepatic artery

Which artery serves the liver?

hepatic artery proper

What is the largest branch of the abdominal aorta and supplies most of the small intestine via the intestinal arteries and the 1st half of the large intestine ?

superior mesenteric artery

Which arteries divides from the descending aorta and serves the pelvis, lower abdominal wall and the lower limbs?

2 large common iliac arteries

What artery supplies the gluteal muscles via the superior and inferior gluteal arteries and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh, and the external genitalia ?

the internal iliac artery

What artery supplies the anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb?

the external iliac artery

Which arteries that divide off from the popliteal artery supply the leg and foot?

the anterior and posterior tibial arteries

______ is the sound which marks the approximate beginning of systole, and is created when the increase in intraventricular pressure during contraction exceeds the pressure within the atria, causing a sudden closing of the tricuspid and mitral, or AV valves. "lub"

"lub"

What sound is produced at the end of systole, the ventricles begin to relax, the pressures within the heart become less than that in the aorta and pulmonary artery, and a brief back flow of blood causes the semilunar valves to snap shut?

"dup"

What are the only arteries (other than umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood and where do they originate?

pulmonary arteries, branches of pulmonary trunk

What arteries serve the adrenal glands and flank the superior mesenteric artery?

suprarenal arteries

4 pairs of _____ arteries arise from the posterolateral surface of the aorta just below the inferior mesenteric artery and supply the posterior abdominal wall (lumbar region)

lumbar arteries

The anterior tibial artery supplies the extensor muscles and terminates with what artery?

dorsalis pedis artery

Where are arteries generally located within the body?

in deep, well-protected body areas

Where are veins generally located within the body?

more superficially

Where do the major systemic arteries branch from?

the aorta

Where do most veins tend to converge from?

the venae cavae

Veins draining the head and upper exremities empty into what?

superior vena cava

Veins draining the lower part of the body empty into what? i

inferior vena cava

Where does the inferior vena cava begin?

with the union of the paired common iliac veins

Each common iliac vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins and receives venous blood from the lower limb?

the internal iliac vein and the external iliac vein

The popliteal vein becomes which vein in the thigh? f

femoral vein

Which vein drains into the inferior vena cava?

the right suprarenal vein

Which vein drains into the left renal vein?

the left suprarenal vein

What is the special vessel called where the unpaired veins draining the digestive tract organs empty and carry blood to the liver b4 it enters the systemic venous system?

hepatic portal vein

Which paired veins drain the head, neck and upper extremities and unit to form the superior vena cava?

right and left brachiocephalic veins

The jugular, vertebral and subclavian veins are included in the branches of which veins?

brachiocephalic veins

What large veins drain the superior sagittal sinus and other dural sinuses of the brain?

internal jugular veins

Which veins receive venous blood from the upper extremity?

subclavian veins

What does the subclavian vein becomes once it traverses the axilla?

the axillary vein

Which 3 veins superficially drain the arm?

the basilic vein, the cephalic vein, and the median cubital vein

Which vein is the site of choice for drawing blood?

median cubital vein

How does the pulmonary circulation system differ from the systemic circulation?

It doesn't serve the metabolic needs of the body tissues w/which it is associated (in this case, lung tissue) Instead if brings blood into close contact w/alveoli of lungs to perm,it gas exchanges that rid blood of excess CO2 and replenish oxygen supply

In what way are the arteries of the pulmonary circulation similar to veins?

structurally, and they create a low-pressure bed in the lungs

What arteries provide the functional blood supply of the lungs and diverge from the thoracic portion of the descending aorta?

bronchial arteries

What occurs across the walls of the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries? d

diffusion

Blood vessels of what drain the digestive viscera, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver for processing via the hepatic portal vein?

the hepatic portal circulation

Which vein drains the distal portions of the large intestine, joins the splenic vein, which drains the spleen and part of the pancreas and stomach?

inferior mesenteric vein

Which vein, which drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein?

the left gastric vein

What carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus?

umbilical vein

What carries carbon dioxide and waste-laden blood from the fetus to the placenta?

umbilical artery

What is the shunt vessel called that most blood is ducted thru the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava in a fetus and carries the blood to the right atrium of the heart?

ductus venosus

What is the name of the 2 shunts that ensures blood almost entirely bypasses the lungs in a fetus?

foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus

What is the only fetal vessel that carries highly oxygenated blood?

umbilical vein

At birth, what does the foramen ovale become?

fossa ovalis

What is the ductus arteriosus converted to after it collapses at birth?

fibrous ligamentum arteriosum

What is another name for the cerebral arterial circle in the brain?

Circle of Willis

Which arteries contribute to the formation of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) at the base of the brain?

internal carotid arteries

At the base of the cerebrum, the basilar artery divides to form which arteries?

posterior cerebral arteries

What arteries supply portions of the temporal and occipital lobes of the cerebrum and become part of the cerebral arterial circle by joining w/the posterior communicating arteries?

posterior cerebral arteries

Are the AV valves closed or open during ventricular systole?

closed

ARe the AV valves open or closed during atrial contraction and ventricular diastole or relaxation?

open

The AV valves are open within the heart when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than atrial pressure?

lower

The AV valves close within the heart when ventricular pressure is higher or lower than atrial pressure?

higher

The semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure is greater or lower than pressure in the great arteries?

greater

The semilunar valves close when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than pressure in the great arteries?

lower

Are both sets of valves closed during any part of the cycle?

Yes

Are both sets of valves open during any part of the cycle?

No

During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular contraction?

highest

During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular relaxation?

lowest

The first heart sound is a result of closure of what?

the atrioventricular valves

The second heart sound is a result of closure of what?

the semilunar valves

The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are what?

the ventricles

Immediately after the second heart sound, the what are filling with blood?

atria

Immediately after the second heart sound, the the what are empty?

ventricles

What is the difference called between an apical pulse and an arterial pulse?

pulse deficit

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