artery that supplies the distal half of the large intestine via several branches
an arterial trunk that has three major branches, which run to the liver, spleen and stomach
The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins?
splenic vein and superior mesenteric
Which vein drains the lesser curvature of the stomach and empties directly into the hepatic portal vein?
What 2 paired arteries enter the skull to supply the brain?
internal carotids and vertebral arteries
What name is given to the communication network that has branches of the internal carotids and the vertebral arteries that cooperate to form a ring of blood vessels encircling the pituitary gland at the base of the brain?
Circle of Willis
Why do veins have valves but arteries dont?
Skeletal muscle "milking action" and changes in thoracic cavity pressure during breathing
What are artery walls proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?
Arteries must withstand high pressure and veins dont
What is the exception to the fact that most arteries carry oxygen rich blood?
the pulmonary arteries
How do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from the systemic arteries?
The pulmonary arteries are more like veins anatomically with relatively thin walls, as the pulmonary circulation is a low pressure bed
Why is the hepatic portal blood carried to the liver b4 it enters the systemic circulation?
BC it is rich in nutrients and the liver is responsible for maintaining proper blood concentrations of glucose, proteins, etc. and its phagocytes rid the body of debris
What is the function of the circle of Willis?
Provides an alternate set of pathways for blood to reach brain tissue in case of impaired blood
Which artery divides to form an internal carotid artery which serves the brain, and an external carotid artery?
common carotid artery
What artery supplies the extracranial tissues of the neck and head via its superficial temporal, ophthalmic, maxillary, facial, and occipital arterial branches?
the external carotid artery
Which artery serves the cerebellum, part of the brain stem and the posterior cerebral hemispheres?
The brachial artery subdivides into which 2 arteries, which supply the forearm and hand?
radial and ulnar arteries
Which artery supplies the stomach via the right gastric artery,and the duodenum, and pancreas?
common hepatic artery
What is the largest branch of the abdominal aorta and supplies most of the small intestine via the intestinal arteries and the 1st half of the large intestine ?
superior mesenteric artery
Which arteries divides from the descending aorta and serves the pelvis, lower abdominal wall and the lower limbs?
2 large common iliac arteries
What artery supplies the gluteal muscles via the superior and inferior gluteal arteries and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh, and the external genitalia ?
the internal iliac artery
Which arteries that divide off from the popliteal artery supply the leg and foot?
the anterior and posterior tibial arteries
______ is the sound which marks the approximate beginning of systole, and is created when the increase in intraventricular pressure during contraction exceeds the pressure within the atria, causing a sudden closing of the tricuspid and mitral, or AV valves. "lub"
What sound is produced at the end of systole, the ventricles begin to relax, the pressures within the heart become less than that in the aorta and pulmonary artery, and a brief back flow of blood causes the semilunar valves to snap shut?
What are the only arteries (other than umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood and where do they originate?
pulmonary arteries, branches of pulmonary trunk
What arteries serve the adrenal glands and flank the superior mesenteric artery?
4 pairs of _____ arteries arise from the posterolateral surface of the aorta just below the inferior mesenteric artery and supply the posterior abdominal wall (lumbar region)
The anterior tibial artery supplies the extensor muscles and terminates with what artery?
dorsalis pedis artery
Each common iliac vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins and receives venous blood from the lower limb?
the internal iliac vein and the external iliac vein
What is the special vessel called where the unpaired veins draining the digestive tract organs empty and carry blood to the liver b4 it enters the systemic venous system?
hepatic portal vein
Which paired veins drain the head, neck and upper extremities and unit to form the superior vena cava?
right and left brachiocephalic veins
The jugular, vertebral and subclavian veins are included in the branches of which veins?
What large veins drain the superior sagittal sinus and other dural sinuses of the brain?
internal jugular veins
Which 3 veins superficially drain the arm?
the basilic vein, the cephalic vein, and the median cubital vein
How does the pulmonary circulation system differ from the systemic circulation?
It doesn't serve the metabolic needs of the body tissues w/which it is associated (in this case, lung tissue) Instead if brings blood into close contact w/alveoli of lungs to perm,it gas exchanges that rid blood of excess CO2 and replenish oxygen supply
In what way are the arteries of the pulmonary circulation similar to veins?
structurally, and they create a low-pressure bed in the lungs
What arteries provide the functional blood supply of the lungs and diverge from the thoracic portion of the descending aorta?
Blood vessels of what drain the digestive viscera, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver for processing via the hepatic portal vein?
the hepatic portal circulation
Which vein drains the distal portions of the large intestine, joins the splenic vein, which drains the spleen and part of the pancreas and stomach?
inferior mesenteric vein
Which vein, which drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein?
the left gastric vein
What is the shunt vessel called that most blood is ducted thru the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava in a fetus and carries the blood to the right atrium of the heart?
What is the name of the 2 shunts that ensures blood almost entirely bypasses the lungs in a fetus?
foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
What is the ductus arteriosus converted to after it collapses at birth?
fibrous ligamentum arteriosum
Which arteries contribute to the formation of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) at the base of the brain?
internal carotid arteries
At the base of the cerebrum, the basilar artery divides to form which arteries?
posterior cerebral arteries
What arteries supply portions of the temporal and occipital lobes of the cerebrum and become part of the cerebral arterial circle by joining w/the posterior communicating arteries?
posterior cerebral arteries
ARe the AV valves open or closed during atrial contraction and ventricular diastole or relaxation?
The AV valves are open within the heart when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than atrial pressure?
The AV valves close within the heart when ventricular pressure is higher or lower than atrial pressure?
The semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure is greater or lower than pressure in the great arteries?
The semilunar valves close when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than pressure in the great arteries?
During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular contraction?
During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular relaxation?
The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are what?