AP English III Fall Semester Vocabulary Review
|Euphemism|| A polite term used to avoid directly naming something considered offensive or unpleasant. |
Ex: "put the dog to sleep" instead of "kill the dog/dog is now dead"
|Evidence||Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something|
|Exigence|| An issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts someone to write or speak. |
Ex: Thomas Paine wrote about creating an independent republic in Common Sense, the exigence for this was dislike of England's control over America.
|Extended Metaphor|| A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work|
Ex: Think of our history textbook which metaphorically made America a virgin (untouched by civilization), then pregnant (with destiny) ....lol
Ex: slippery slope, ad hominem, straw man
"That man is having a drink in the bar. He will become an alcoholic" slippery slope
"Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that." Straw man
|Flashback||a scene or event from the past that appears in a narrative out of chronological order, to fill in information or explain something in the present|
|Foreshadowing|| the use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot|
Ex: In the Scarlet Ibis (9th grade), the exotic, abnormal red bird dies in the storm. Later Doodle dies in the storm.
|Genre|| a major category or type of literature|
Ex: Harry Potter is a part a part of the Fantasy_____
|Gerund|| a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun|
Ex: Running is a form of exercise; Dancing is her passion
|Hortative Sentence|| sentence that exhorts, advises or calls to action|
Ex:" Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us." - JFK Inaugural Address
|Hyperbole|| extravagant exaggeration|
Ex: "That joke is so old, the last time I heard it I was riding on a dinosaur."
|Imperative Sentence||..., a sentence that requests or commands|
Ex: "Forget them, Wendy. Forget them all. Come with me where you'll never, never have to worry about grown up things again." Peter Pan
"Speak what you think now in hard words, and tomorrow speak what tomorrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said today." Emerson
|Imply|| express or state indirectly|
Ex: "The teacher ____ that the test would include chapters two and three when she winked at her students while reviewing the contents of those specific chapters."
|Infer|| conclude by reasoning|
Ex: "The students _____ that the test would include chapters two and three because they had reviewed those chapters more than the others."
|Infinitive|| a form of a verb that generally appears with the word 'to' and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb|
Ex:"To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap is Michelle's only goal tonight."
|Inversion|| a sentence in which the verb precedes the subject|
Ex:" Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang."
|Juxtaposition|| placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast|
Ex: At Gatsby's party everybody is having fun and getting drunk while Gatsby distances himself away and doesn't drink at all.
|Litotes|| a type of understatemnet in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite (describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture.")|
Ex: Not unlike=like; not bad=good; describing a gushing wound " it was no small papercut"
|Logos|| an appeal based on logic or reason|
Ex:" Half of all children in Africa are forced into labor"
" 40% of girls ages 10-18 have to work in factories late at night while we, their parents, sleep soundly" (like my parahrasing of our timed writings?)
|Macrocosm|| the universe considered as a whole; the entire complex structure of something|
Ex: The biosphere is the macrocosm we call Earth. (lame example...sorry)
|Metaphor|| comparison not using like or as|
Ex: He's a giant.
You just ate a mountain of cheese
|Metonymy|| ..., substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it |
Ex:"The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting]."
|Microcosm|| small world; the world in miniature.|
Ex: The small village community that Jane Austen depicts serves as a microcosm of English society in her time, for in this small world we see all the social classes meeting and mingling.
|Narrator||The person telling the story|
|Non-Sequitur|| a statement containing an illogical conclusion.|
Ex: They cut some of the funding to national defense. I can't believe they're letting the terrorists have free reign over the country.
|Organization|| an organized structure for arranging |
Ex: Errr...does chiasmus count for this...?
|Oxymoron|| conjoining contradictory terms |
|Parable|| A simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson|
Ex: Story of King Midas (fingers turned everything to gold)= greed can be your downfall
|Paradox||a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.|
Ex: "I must be cruel to be kind" Hamlet wants to avenge his father's death but that means he has to kill his mother's present love. He is doing a good deed for his mother that will also be horrible for her.