Small samples of a culture.
Use of energy and building blocks to produce new cellular materials such as macromolecules.
The use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen (such as nitrate or sulfate) to accept electrons at the end of electron transport chains.
Cells that produce enzymes that cause their own lysis or breakdown.
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.
Breakdown of complex materials into building blocks or energy that the cell can utilize for synthesis; making more cellular chemicals.
The process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells.
The use of salts found in rock as an energy source; employed by some bacteria.
Collections of autonomously replicating cells.
colony forming unit
Live bacterial cell which can give rise to a colony.
Phase when the cells begin to die at an exponential rate and most are unable to multiply. Also called the decline phase.
Modify (as a native protein) especially by heat, acid, alkali, or ultraviolet radiation so that all of the original properties are removed or diminished.
Weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner.
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
When bacteria double every constant period of time.
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Each division or doubling of a bacterium.
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of 2 molecules of ATP.
Also called the citric acid cycle; occurs in all plants and animals; a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
A period following the introduction of microorganisms into fresh batch culture medium when there is no increase in cell numbers or mass.
The period of exponential growth of bacterial population.
All of the chemical processes that occur in a cell.
The transfer of electrons to the oxygen coupled with the production of ATP.
The end result of a chemical reaction.
Pyruvic acid; a three carbon acid produced from glucose by glycolysis.
The chemicals that enter into a chemical reaction; synonymous with substrates.
A process in which one or more substances are changed into others.
The passage of electrons to oxygen to produce water.
Phase when the population enters a survival mode in which cells stop growing or grow slowly.
The chemicals that enter into a chemical reaction; synonymous with reactants.
total cell count
The number of cell colonies in a cell sample multiplied by the dilution factor and used to discover how many bacteria were in the original sample.
As bacteria multiply within a medium, the medium becomes cloudy with cells; measured with a spectrophotometer.
Based on the assumption that every live cell in a sample will generate a colony when placed in appropriate agar medium.