Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to keep and bear arms.
Prohibits the quartering of troops.
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
Right to a fair trial, can't be tried twice for the same crime, and you don't have to testify against yourself.
Right to a fair, speedy trial.
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people.
Individual cannot sue a state in a federal court.
Changes in manner of electing president and vice president; procedure when no presidential candidate receives electoral majority.
Prohibition of slavery.
Rights of citizens: 1)all persons born in the united states are granted citizenship, 2) no state can deny any person the equal protection of the laws, 3)no state can deny any person life, liberty, property without due process of law.
No denial of vote because of race, color, previous condition of servitude.
Allows Federal Income Tax.
Senators no longer appointed by state legislatures. Now to be directly elected by citizens.
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages - banned making, selling, or transporting of alcoholic beverages.
Women's right to vote.
Presidential/VP/congressional terms of office begin in Jan; New meeting dates for Congress; Emergency presidential and VP succession.
Repealed prohibition and voided the 18th amendment.
(Presidential Term Limits) Limits the president to two terms or a maximum of ten years.
Right to vote for president in District of Columbia.
Abolition of Poll Tax in National Elections.
Established process for president to pass on duties if he/she is unable to serve. Gose to Vice-President,vacancy in Vice-Presidency is filled by appointment from president (approved by congress).
Voting age lowered to 18.
Provides that Congress' member can't increase their salary until the next election.
A condition in which members of different groups possess substantially the same rights to participate actively in the political system.
Equality and fair treatment of all groups within the various institutions in society, both public and private, that serve the public at large.
May be defined as providing all groups the equality of opportunity for economic success, or as the equality of results.
Any judicial contest, including all the events that lead up to a possible court event.
A group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination).
Those specific individual rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution and cannot be denied to citizens by government.
Those positive rights, whether political, social, or economic, conferred by the government on individuals or groups.
The right to vote.
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
Legal proceedings consisting of the judicial examination of issues by a competent tribunal.
A decision by a grand jury authorizing the government to proceed to trial against the defendant.
The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves.
Jim Crow laws
Laws used by some southern states that required segregation of blacks and whites in public facilities. The laws excluded blacks from militias and denied them certain education and welfare services.
A lawful concerted attempt by a group of people to express displeasure with, or obtain concessions from, a particular person or company by refusing to do business with them.
Supreme Court Aid
The Supreme Court started interpreting the laws broadly and started acting like the legislative and executive branch.
Brown v. Board of Education
The 1954 Supreme Court decision that declared school segregation to be unconstitutional.
Plessey v. Ferguson
The Supreme Court case that upheld a Louisiana segregation law on the theory that as long as the accommodations between the racially segregated facilities were equal, the equal protection clause was not violated.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens.
First African American elected to Congress.
The government's requirement that material be approved by government before it can be published.
The right of judge or magistrate to choose to do or not to do something, particularly in relation to sentencing and offender.
Ex post facto laws
A law that punishes someone for doing something in the past, at a time when the act was not illegal.
The prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried.
De jure segregation
Segregation that is imposed by law.
De facto segregation
Segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The federal law that banned racial discrimination in all public accommodations; prohibited discrimination by employers and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate complaints of discrimination; and denied public funds to schools that continued to discriminate on the basis of race.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The federal law that invalidated literacy tests and property requirements and required select states and cities to apply for permission to the Justice Department to change their voting laws. As a consequence, millions of African Americans were effectively reenfranchised in the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
The federal law that banned race discrimination in housing and made interference with a citizen's civil rights a federal crime.
Programs, laws, or practices designed to remedy past discriminatory hiring practices, government contracting, and school admissions.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Case in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse student body.
Grutter v. Bollinger
Case in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's law school admission program was sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in admission dicisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse student body.
The law enforcement practice of taking race into account when identifying possible suspects of crimes.
Equal Rights Amendment
Constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination based on gender.
Part of 1964 Civil Rights Act - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; also prohibits discrimination against an individual because of his or her association with another individual of a particular race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
The freedom of agencies to decide how to implement a vague or ambiguous law passed by Congress.
Comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.
A ceiling based on attitudinal or organizational bias in the work force that prevents minorities and women from advancing to leadership positions.
Principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally.
Number of people of Hispanic descent.
Percentage of Americans over sixty-five.
The length of time Supreme Court justices serve.
(1) Legislative codes, laws, or sets of rules enacted by duly authorized lawmaking bodes; (2) the body of noncriminal laws of a nation or state that deal with the rights of private citizens.
Judge-made law handed down through judicial opinions, which over time establish precedents.
Standard Operating Procedures
Better known as SOPs, these procedures are used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable.
The body of law dealing with crimes and their punishment.
Law that involves the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution and state constitutions.
(Civil law) A law established by following earlier judicial decisions.
The stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.
The legislative function of monitoring administrators to make sure they are administering the laws according to legislative intent.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
A government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment.
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal agency that administers and enforces all of the nation's environmental programs and spells out the requirements of legislative initiatives to control the quality of the environment.
The target of a plaintiff's complaint.
The party that chooses to initiate formal legal proceedings in a civil case.
The elimination of government oversight and government regulation of certain activities.
The delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government).
The process of replacing government-provided services with services provided by the private sector.
This movement calls for the development of an entrepreneurial government that searches for efficient and effective ways of managing. It is based on being mission driven, results oriented, reliant on user fees, and association with New Democrats.
Congress's exercise of its authority to monitor the activities of agencies and administrators.
General Accounting Office
Staff agency which investigates agencies and policies and makes recommendations on the various aspects of government.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
An agency employee who acts as an impartial decision-maker.
A set of aggressive federal domestic policies proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in the 1930s and passed by Congress as a response to the Great Depression; it ultimately transformed the presidency into an institution marked by permanent bureaucracies and well-established repositories of power.
A law that relates to the authority of administrative agencies and the ruels promulgated by those agencies.
A pretrial negotiated resolution in a criminal case in which the defendants seek to reduce their jail sentence by pleading guilty and in return prosecutors are willing to trade down the severity of the punishment.
An organization set up in a logical and rational manner for the purpose of accomplishing specific functions.
The reduction of expenditures in order to become financial stable.
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs.
The power of a court to declare acts of the other branches of government or of a subordinate government to be unconstitutional and thus invalid.
An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court).
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures.
Department of Homeland Security
Executive branch agency established in 2002 to coordinate government entities in protecting U.S. citizens against terrorism within the nation's borders. Also the most recent Cabinet to be created.
The first Hispanic Supreme Court justice.
Sandra Day O'Connor
The first female Supreme Court justice.
The first African American Supreme Court justice.
An adviser to the court on some matter of law who is not a party to the case.
The right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.
A common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case.
The rule of precedent, whereby a rule or law contained in a judicial decision is commonly viewed as binding on judges whenever the same question is presented.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
An independent agency of the United States government that provides a single point of accountability for all federal emergency preparedness and mitigation and response activities.
The lawyer representing the U.S. government before the Supreme Court.
Departments that focus on a narrower set of issues than do higher-status Cabinet departments.
Government bodies responsible for the control and supervision of a specified activity or area of public interest.
Office of Personnel Management
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
Merit Systems Protection Board
An independent agency that oversees and protects merit in the federal government personnel system.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
The 1883 law that created a merit system for hiring many federal workers, protected them from being fired for partisan reasons, and set up a Civil Service Commission to oversee the hiring and firing process.
The act of appointing people to government positions in return for their partisan and/or political support.
A system of appointing and promoting civil service personnel based on merit rather than political affiliation or loyalty.
Units in the federal bureaucracy set up to run like private companies that depend on revenue from citizens to provide their services.
Government railroad service under the National Railroad Passenger Corporation.
Creative activity (writing or pictures or films etc.) of no literary or artistic value other than to stimulate sexual desire.
An offensive or indecent word or phrase.