What is the most important task in the management of a critically sick bird?
stabilization (correct :stress, hypovolemia, dyspnea, dehydration, hypothermia, starvation, sepsis, metal intox, egg bound)
What is the preferred 02 delivery method in a bird? what if there is a tracheal obstruction?
02 cage; air sac tube
The best spot for _____ ______ is the caudal end of the last rib, the flexor cruris mm., and the pubic bone.
air sac intubation
The maintenance fluid rate in birds is ____ml/kg/day, and the max. replacement value for a 10% dehydrated bird is _____ml/kg/day and should be given over the course of ____ days.
50; 50; 2 days
Gram - infections, zinc/lead tox, chlamydosis, neglect, hepatic lipidosis, and female repro. problems are likely to cause a bird to be?
critically ill (decompensated, metabolic abnormalities)
Healthy head feathers, with feather loss on the body, with minimal pruritus most likely have?
feather destructive behavior
The propatagium, inner thighs, sternum, and dorsum are the typical sites of feather loss due to?
Environmental changes, scolding (seen as reward), isolation, and changes in routine are all factors that increase the likelihood of ?
When treating _____ with pyschotherapeutic drugs, all of them work some of the time, none work all of the time.
______ is common in cockatiels, budgies, and lovebirds, it occurs in the absence of a mate, and increases the risk of egg binding, yolk peritonitis, malnutrition and osteoperosis.
chronic egg laying
Removal of nesting stimuli (shredded paper, toys, other mates, and nesting boxes) is done to help tx?
chronic egg laying
_____ used to treat chronic egg laying suppresses ovulation, but they birds can develop ab's to the drug.
What is the sx tx for chronic egg laying in birds? what doesn't it remove, and what can this cause?
salpingohysterectomy; the ovaries = cystic ovary, mis-ovulated eggs, yolk peritonitis)
The c/s for ______ are depression, abdominal straining, dyspnea, abdominal swelling, and lameness in the left leg.
What are the 2 tx for egg binding?
stabilize bird; extraction via manual manipulation, ovocentesis, c-section, or salpingohysterectomy
Abdominal distention, anorexia, wt. loss, no c/s, are the c/s for ______ which can also be assoc. w/ abnormal/retained eggs, or yolk peritonitis.
What are the 3 tx for egg yolk peritonitis?
fluids/warmpth, abdominocentesis, sx to remove debris/salpingohysterectomy
Which spp. of bird are at high risk for developing neoplasia? Most often the tumors are ____ upon discovery.
Rule outs for ______ are cloacitis, papillomas, chronic egg laying, and an abdominal mass.
In coordination to epileptic seizures in african greys is most likely ______, and is treated with ______and _____.
hypocalcemia; Ca gluconate; diazepam
Pipracillin, cefotaxime, amikacin, and tobramycin are all _____ abx for the tx of bite wounds.
Proximal wing fractures are treated with a _____ bandage, followed by wrapping the wing to the body.
Neuro. signs, anemia, poly chromasia, disruption of heme formation, hemoglobinuria, and polyuria are the c/s for this tox.
Signs of _____ tox. include anorexia, weakness, crop stasis, ataxia, mm. twitching, prolapsed nictitans, increased resp. secretions, dyspnea, and bradycardia.
Birds are not as sensitive to ____ ____ tox. but it is seen more often in carnivorous birds. why? tx?
rodenticide anticoags.; more likely to eat a rodent that is ingested the poison; K1
Any gram- bacteria is bad, should swab and culture all birds, and cloacal/choana culture is meaning full are all _______ about bacterial infxns in birds.
______ can cause severe enteritis, cloacitis, and death, and is a common cause of rancid droppings.
A sick bird with upper resp. or GI signs with biliverdinuria, hepato/splenomegaly, leukocytosis, monocytosis, and increased bile acids are the c/s for this zoonotic avian dz.
If you dx chlamydiosis in a multi-bird house hold you should? how long?
tx all birds; long 30-45 days
Why do you have to give oral or injectable doxy. to a bird with chlamydiosis?
medicated food/water may not be adequately consumed and is inactivated by light
Candida, aspergillus, and gastric yeast are common causes of _______ (spp) fungal infections.
Sour crop, crop stasis, wt. loss, and slow growth are the c/s for _____ infxns of the GI common in nestlings.
____ ____ yeast is most common in the small birds (canaries, parrotlets, budgies, cockatiels and lovebirds.
_____ infxns usually affects the lower resp. system but can cause URI, ocular, or skin infxns.
_______ is most common in african greys amazons, pionus, senegals, cockatiels, and maccaws. also galliformes.
Exposure to high spore loads, corncob or straw bedding, moldy feed, wet nest material, house plant potting soil, hypo. vit A, and all-seed diets are the predisposing factors for a bird to develop?
A truly diagnostic sample for infxns must come from these places.(4)
air sacs, lung biopsy, deep tracheal swa, and sinus cavity biopsy
The tx of _____ takes months, and they must be on oxygen and itraconazole and amphotericin B.
You should be conscious of treating african greys with _____ for aspergillosis b/c it is TOXIC.
_____ virus has basophilic inclusion bodies, and affects all parrot spp., mostly nestlings and aged birds who present with ascites, crop stasis, malformation of feathers.
The c/s for _____ include acute death, swollen coelom due to large liver, flock deaths, depression, wt. loss, crop statis,and bruising and hemorrhage due to poor clotting.
Psittacine beak and feather dz (PBFD) is caused by a ___virus that is highly stable and resistant to disinfectants.
_____ in the acute form in neonates presents with a high mortality, septic/2ndary infxns, thymic necrosis, and pancytopenia.
Feather agenesis, easily epilated feathers, and pancytopenia are the c/s for this viral dz and you must treat the animal like it has parvo. why?
PBFD; the virus is super resistant and very infectious
IM inclusion bodies and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and PCR are good dx for this dz in young and juvenile parrot spp.
Proventricular dilatation dz, is caused by an avian ____virus that leads to lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneurtis and encephalitis.
Prolonged incubation, wasting maldigestion (undigested food in droppings), vomiting, loss of innervation to the GI*, ataxia, intention tremors, seizures, and weakness are all c/s for this viral dz.
Lead/zinc tox, AGY, GI obstruction, viral encephalitis, tuberculosis and parasite infxn are the ddx for this viral dz.
What dx method is definitive in the dx of PDD?
histopath (myenteric lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis)
What are the top 2 tx for PDD?
feed liquid or highly digestible food; NSAIDS COX2 inhibs. meloxicam, celecoxib)
What are the top sx tx for psittacine papillomas? (3)
palliative removal; chemical cautery (silver nitrate); radio/laser/cryo sx
Acute mortality, depression, yellow/green urates, anorexia, regurg. wide spread death in groups, and history of contact w/ a neotropical bird are the c/s for herpes virus that leaves eosinophilic intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies.
pacheco's herpes virus
Rapid dx of pacheco's herp. infxn in birds is done by? other, less reliable methods?
necropsy; PCR, Inclusion bodies, FA
How do you dx and tx giardia in birds?
dx = fecal smear, stain, ELISA; tx= metronidazole, fenbendazole
Old world parrots are very susep. to this parasite that is transported by opossum, cockroaches, and flies which causes lung edema, hepato/splenomegaly, and meningoencephalitis, and acute death.
Kneimidocoptes aka -______ _____ causes featherless areas and is dx'ed by?
scaly leg and face mites; skin scrape