What is the most important task in the management of a critically sick bird?
stabilization (correct :stress, hypovolemia, dyspnea, dehydration, hypothermia, starvation, sepsis, metal intox, egg bound)
How do you assess blood pressure or venous return in a bird?
What is the best way to admin. fluids to a critically ill bird? (2)
Open mouth breathing, chest excursion, and tail bobbing are all signs of?
What is the preferred 02 delivery method in a bird? what if there is a tracheal obstruction?
02 cage; air sac tube
The best spot for _____ ______ is the caudal end of the last rib, the flexor cruris mm., and the pubic bone.
air sac intubation
The maintenance fluid rate in birds is ____ml/kg/day, and the max. replacement value for a 10% dehydrated bird is _____ml/kg/day and should be given over the course of ____ days.
50; 50; 2 days
When can you give fluids PO to a bird?
when they are stable
Gram - infections, zinc/lead tox, chlamydosis, neglect, hepatic lipidosis, and female repro. problems are likely to cause a bird to be?
critically ill (decompensated, metabolic abnormalities)
Baytril is a shotgun treatment for?
gram - infxns
Doxycycline is a shot gun treatment for?
Ca EDTA is a shotgun treatment for?
heavy metal tox.
Itraconazole is a shotgun treatment for?
Healthy head feathers, with feather loss on the body, with minimal pruritus most likely have?
feather destructive behavior
The propatagium, inner thighs, sternum, and dorsum are the typical sites of feather loss due to?
Environmental changes, scolding (seen as reward), isolation, and changes in routine are all factors that increase the likelihood of ?
Ectoparasites rarely cause?
Endocrine imbalances are rarely a cause of?
Primary dermatologic conditions are _____ in birds.
____ def. can result in scaly skin and dull feathers.
What endoparasite of the gut might be a cause of FDB?
The tx of_____ is aimed at improving diet, environment, and decreasing stress.
What is one of the most frustrating aspects of avian med?
tx of FDB
When treating _____ with pyschotherapeutic drugs, all of them work some of the time, none work all of the time.
What is one of the most common reasons birds end up in rescue org. or re-homed?
______ is common in cockatiels, budgies, and lovebirds, it occurs in the absence of a mate, and increases the risk of egg binding, yolk peritonitis, malnutrition and osteoperosis.
chronic egg laying
You can ____ the photo period to help decrease chronic egg laying.
Removal of nesting stimuli (shredded paper, toys, other mates, and nesting boxes) is done to help tx?
chronic egg laying
Inappropriate pair bonding with humans is a cause of this dz in females.
chronic egg laying
Leuprolide acetate, with changes in management strategies is the best tx for?
chronic egg laying
_____ used to treat chronic egg laying suppresses ovulation, but they birds can develop ab's to the drug.
What is the sx tx for chronic egg laying in birds? what doesn't it remove, and what can this cause?
salpingohysterectomy; the ovaries = cystic ovary, mis-ovulated eggs, yolk peritonitis)
The c/s for ______ are depression, abdominal straining, dyspnea, abdominal swelling, and lameness in the left leg.
What are the 2 tx for egg binding?
stabilize bird; extraction via manual manipulation, ovocentesis, c-section, or salpingohysterectomy
____ is usually an ascending infection of the oviduct.
Abdominal distention, anorexia, wt. loss, no c/s, are the c/s for ______ which can also be assoc. w/ abnormal/retained eggs, or yolk peritonitis.
What are the 3 tx for egg yolk peritonitis?
fluids/warmpth, abdominocentesis, sx to remove debris/salpingohysterectomy
Which spp. of bird are at high risk for developing neoplasia? Most often the tumors are ____ upon discovery.
What two neoplasia are common in male birds?
sertoli cell tumors, seminomas
_____ occurs secondary to chronic straining.
Rule outs for ______ are cloacitis, papillomas, chronic egg laying, and an abdominal mass.
What is the tx for cloacal prolapse?
temp. stay sutures in vent, cloacopexy, ventplasty
This metabolic dz is common in african grey parrots.
In coordination to epileptic seizures in african greys is most likely ______, and is treated with ______and _____.
hypocalcemia; Ca gluconate; diazepam
Cat bites in birds can lead to fatal _____.
Pipracillin, cefotaxime, amikacin, and tobramycin are all _____ abx for the tx of bite wounds.
Distal wing frx are best treated with a ____ bandage.
Proximal wing fractures are treated with a _____ bandage, followed by wrapping the wing to the body.
Lower limb frx in birds are tx with?
modified robert jones
Neuro. signs, anemia, poly chromasia, disruption of heme formation, hemoglobinuria, and polyuria are the c/s for this tox.
What are the top 2 tx for lead poisoning?
supportive care; Ca EDTA
Weakness maybe the only c/s with _____ tox. and the tx is similar to lead.
How do you dx zinc poisoning? (2)
rads = metal in gut, high zinc conc. in blood
Signs of _____ tox. include anorexia, weakness, crop stasis, ataxia, mm. twitching, prolapsed nictitans, increased resp. secretions, dyspnea, and bradycardia.
_____ is not given to birds for bradycardia, why?
atropine; they are not responsive to igt
What is the tx for OP poisoning?
Birds are not as sensitive to ____ ____ tox. but it is seen more often in carnivorous birds. why? tx?
rodenticide anticoags.; more likely to eat a rodent that is ingested the poison; K1
Peanut butter helps do what when given to birds?
helps pass particulates
E.coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, and chlamydiophila are the 4 most common?
Bacterial infxs are most common in ____ b/c they are ______.
Any gram- bacteria is bad, should swab and culture all birds, and cloacal/choana culture is meaning full are all _______ about bacterial infxns in birds.
What is the most frequent site for bacterial infxns in birds?
Primary ____ dz is most often seen in the resp. tract of adult birds.
What is the most common resp. pathogen in birds?
In birds ____ cultures are the most enlightening.
Swelling of the areas around the eyes are indicative of?
sinusitis (extension of resp. infxn)
Trephination, flushing, abx based on culture, and nebulization are the tx for?
______ can cause severe enteritis, cloacitis, and death, and is a common cause of rancid droppings.
The most common skin problem in birds is from?
trauma/ bite wounds
Use gram __ abx in birds with caution.
Which abx in birds causes aplastic anemia?
______ is aka parrot feve, ornithosis, and psittacosis.
Avian chlamydosis is _____ and _____!
Often chlamydiosis is often _____ in carrier birds.
A sick bird with upper resp. or GI signs with biliverdinuria, hepato/splenomegaly, leukocytosis, monocytosis, and increased bile acids are the c/s for this zoonotic avian dz.
What is the best dx tool for chlamydiosis?
If you dx chlamydiosis in a multi-bird house hold you should? how long?
tx all birds; long 30-45 days
Why do you have to give oral or injectable doxy. to a bird with chlamydiosis?
medicated food/water may not be adequately consumed and is inactivated by light
Candida, aspergillus, and gastric yeast are common causes of _______ (spp) fungal infections.
Sour crop, crop stasis, wt. loss, and slow growth are the c/s for _____ infxns of the GI common in nestlings.
Long term abx use can predispose birds to this GI infxn.
____ ____ yeast is most common in the small birds (canaries, parrotlets, budgies, cockatiels and lovebirds.
Lugols iodine is the best stain of feces for?
Avian gastric yeast
When treating AGY, _____ is 100% effective, but _______ B is used.
_____ infxns usually affects the lower resp. system but can cause URI, ocular, or skin infxns.
_______ is most common in african greys amazons, pionus, senegals, cockatiels, and maccaws. also galliformes.
Exposure to high spore loads, corncob or straw bedding, moldy feed, wet nest material, house plant potting soil, hypo. vit A, and all-seed diets are the predisposing factors for a bird to develop?
A truly diagnostic sample for infxns must come from these places.(4)
air sacs, lung biopsy, deep tracheal swa, and sinus cavity biopsy
The tx of _____ takes months, and they must be on oxygen and itraconazole and amphotericin B.
You should be conscious of treating african greys with _____ for aspergillosis b/c it is TOXIC.
You must treat past the resolution of c/s with _____ infxns.
Viral dz dx is most often done with ?
_____ virus has basophilic inclusion bodies, and affects all parrot spp., mostly nestlings and aged birds who present with ascites, crop stasis, malformation of feathers.
Adult birds with the ____virus are usually asymptomatic.
______ virus in other birds besides parrots is most often sen at the time of feathering.
The c/s for _____ include acute death, swollen coelom due to large liver, flock deaths, depression, wt. loss, crop statis,and bruising and hemorrhage due to poor clotting.
"French molt" in budgies is assoc. with?
Crop dilation and hemorrhage is most likely due to this virus.
Psittacine beak and feather dz (PBFD) is caused by a ___virus that is highly stable and resistant to disinfectants.
_____ in the acute form in neonates presents with a high mortality, septic/2ndary infxns, thymic necrosis, and pancytopenia.
Feather agenesis, easily epilated feathers, and pancytopenia are the c/s for this viral dz and you must treat the animal like it has parvo. why?
PBFD; the virus is super resistant and very infectious
IM inclusion bodies and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and PCR are good dx for this dz in young and juvenile parrot spp.
What is the tx for PBFD?
Proventricular dilatation dz, is caused by an avian ____virus that leads to lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneurtis and encephalitis.
Prolonged incubation, wasting maldigestion (undigested food in droppings), vomiting, loss of innervation to the GI*, ataxia, intention tremors, seizures, and weakness are all c/s for this viral dz.
Lead/zinc tox, AGY, GI obstruction, viral encephalitis, tuberculosis and parasite infxn are the ddx for this viral dz.
What dx method is definitive in the dx of PDD?
histopath (myenteric lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis)
What are the top 2 tx for PDD?
feed liquid or highly digestible food; NSAIDS COX2 inhibs. meloxicam, celecoxib)
Birds that survive PDD infxns must be _______ isolated.
Herp. virus causes _____ in the cloaca of birds.
What are the top sx tx for psittacine papillomas? (3)
palliative removal; chemical cautery (silver nitrate); radio/laser/cryo sx
Macaws are most likely to develop ____ papillomas.
Acute mortality, depression, yellow/green urates, anorexia, regurg. wide spread death in groups, and history of contact w/ a neotropical bird are the c/s for herpes virus that leaves eosinophilic intraNUCLEAR inclusion bodies.
pacheco's herpes virus
Rapid dx of pacheco's herp. infxn in birds is done by? other, less reliable methods?
necropsy; PCR, Inclusion bodies, FA
What drug maybe used to treat the flock that has pacheco's dz?
T/F pacheco's dz has no vaccine.
F; it does, may not be infected
Giardia, sarcosystis, and external parasites are the only ______ we are concerned about.
How do you dx and tx giardia in birds?
dx = fecal smear, stain, ELISA; tx= metronidazole, fenbendazole
Old world parrots are very susep. to this parasite that is transported by opossum, cockroaches, and flies which causes lung edema, hepato/splenomegaly, and meningoencephalitis, and acute death.
Kneimidocoptes aka -______ _____ causes featherless areas and is dx'ed by?
scaly leg and face mites; skin scrape
Budgies are the most common spp. to get the scaly and leg face mites, aka?
How do you treat the scaly leg and face mite?
Kneimidocoptes can cause _____ follicle cysts.