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personality

a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world

psychodynamic perspectives

views of personality as primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness) and as developing in stages. most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality

psychodynamic theorists

believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someone's personality we have to explore the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind

Sigmund Freud

architect of psychoanalytic theory p408

Freudian slips

misstatements that Freud believed reveal unconscious thoughts

...defined sex as organ pleasure

Freud...

psychoanalysis

Freud's approach to personality

hysteria

physical symptoms that have no physical cause

overdetermined

hysterical symptoms that had a multitude of causes in the unconscious

Freud's model of the human personality

personality exists mostly below the level of awareness in the unconscious; Ego, superego, ID

ID

it; constists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy; entirely below the unconscious p409

ego

formed as people grow; I; deals with the demands of reality; partly conscious p410

reality principle

Freudian ego abides by this to bring the individual into societal norms

what the ego houses

higher mental functions - reasoning, problem solving, and decision making

superego

harsh internal judge of our behavior; "conscious" that evaluates morality; somewhat conscious p410

defense mechanisms

the ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

repression

the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism according to Freud; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind

defense mechanisms

unconscious, not unhealthy when used in moderation; the way for the ego to survive in a stressful world p411

erogenous zones

according to freud, the parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development

oral stage

infants pleasure centers in the mouth

anal stage

toilet training, fixation with that

phallic stage

child's discovery that self-stimulation is enjoyable; triggers the oedipus complex

Oedipus complex

a young boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother

castration anxiety

the boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father

castration completed

Freud's classification of females; penis envy

latency period

psychic time-out/intermission; Freud considered not important, but we know it is extremely important

genital stage

sexual reawakening; unresolved conflicts with parents reemerge

fixation

the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage

horney

rejected the classical psychoanalytic concepts that anatomy is destiny and cautioned that some of Freud's ideas were only hypothesis p413

jung

developed concepts of collective unconscious and archetypes p413

collective unconscious

the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscous mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past

archetypes

emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people; the collective unconscious is expressed through this

two common archetypes

amina/woman and animus/man (feminine and masculine side) p 314

adler's

individual psychology p 414

individual psychology

people are motivated by purposes and goals and as striving for perfection over pleasure

compensation

Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities

humanistic perspectives

views of personality that stress the person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny, and positive qualities

maslow

humanistic psychology as "third force" p415

rodgers

self-concept p416

self-concept

a central theme in rogers and other humanists view; self-concept refers to individuals' overall perceptions and assessments of their abilities, behavior, and personalities.

rodger's three methods for a more positive self-concept

unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuiness

unconditional positive regard

rodger's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior

empathy

being a sensitive listener and understanding another's true feelings

genuine

being open with our feelings and dropping our pretenses and facades

trait

enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors

Hippocrates's four basic personalities

choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine, melancholic

trait theories

state that personality consist of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses) p418

Allport

father of american personality psychology p418

lexical approach

pulling out all the words that can be used to describe a person

factor analysis

cattell p419 looking for underlying structures and characteristics to account for lexical approach overlap

set the stage for the five-factor model

norman p419

big five factors of personality

the "supertraits" that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality - specifically, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness OCEAN p419

cohort effect

the possibility that people in the same generation share some common characteristics because of their similar history and differ systematically from other generations

personological and life story perspectives

approaches to personality emphasizing that that way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story-aspects that distinguish that individual from all others

murray

p423

murray's definition of personality

the study of the whole person

winter

p424

mcadams

life story approach to identity

life story approach

each of us has a unique life story that represents our memories of what makes us who we are

social cognitive perspectives

approaches to personality, emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals; sc psychologists explore the person's ability to reason; to think about the past, present, and futures, and to reflect on the self.

skinner personality

believerd that were was no such thing. emphasized behavior and felt that internal mental states were irrelevant to psychology p425

bandura

took the basic tenets of behaviorism and added a recognition of the role of mental processes in determining behavior p425

bandura's social cognitive theory p 425

states that behavior, environment, and person/congnitive factore as all important in understanding personality.

reciprocal determinism p425

bandura's term describing the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality

who believes that observationsal learning is a key aspect of how we learn

bandura

self-efficacy

the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes

mischel p427

critique of the idea of consistency, CAPS

personality and assessment

mischel's book that nearly ended the psychological study of personality

cross-situational consistency

a person should behave consistently in different situations

situationism

the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another

cognitive affective processing systems p428

according to mischel, a set of interconnected cognitive systems through which an individual's thoughts and emotions about self and the world become linked in ways that matter to behavior; bottom up approach (concerned with how the personality works, not what it is)

caps crit p428

caps crit

self-report test (also called objective or inventory p429

directly asks people whether specific items (usually true/false or agree/disagree) describe their personality traits

neuroticism extraversion openness personality inventory revised p429

neo-pi-r

face validity

the extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it; a test item has face validity if it seems on the surface to fit the trait in question

empirically keyed tests

a type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already known to differ in some central way (such as individuals with a psychological disorder verses mentally healthy individuals

minnesota multiphastic personality inventory (MMPI)

the most wides used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test; initially constructed to assess abnormal personality tendencies and improve the diagnosis of people with personality disorders; also predicts job candidates and careers

projective test

presents individuals with anbiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it-in other words, to project their own meaning onto it

rorschach inkblot test

a widely used projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality

conscientiousness

might be the most important of the big five

Type A behavior pattern

a cluster of characteristics-such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile-related to the incidence of heart disease

Type B behavior pattern

a cluster of characteristics - such as being relaxed and easy going-related to good health

seligman

views optimism as a matter of how a person explains the causes of bad events p436

learned helplessness

seligman's research which initially focused on animcals who learned to become helpless after the experienced uncontrollable negative events

hardiness

a trait characterized by a sense of commitment and control and a perception of problems as challenges rather than threats

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