"On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres" - heliocentrism
"Almagest" - geocentrism/mathematical astronomy
a. "Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World" - Doctrine of Uniformity which stated that causes produce corresponding effects in the universe
b. "Starry Messenger" - observed planets/heavens; supported heliocentrism
c. "Letters on Sunspots" - observed planets/heavens; supported heliocentrism
"Principia Mathematica" - gravity; explained motion of planets
a."The Advancement of Learning"
b. "Novum Organum"
c. "New Atlantis"
- all attacked scholastic beliefs and pushed for new knowledge
a. "Discourse on Method" - separated two spheres of mind and body
"Pensees" - believed that there's no harm in believing in God, even if he doesn't exist
"Ethics" - closely identified God and nature
a. "Candide" - satire that attacked war, Christianity, unhealthy optimism, etc.
b. "Letters on the English" - praised England's liberties
"Encyclopedia" - secularized learning
"Philosophical Dictionary" - criticized Roman Catholic Church and other institutions
"Of Crime and Punishment" - applied analysis to system of punishments; wanted rational punishment
"Wealth of Nations" - laissez-faire system
"The Spirit of the Laws" - separation of powers; checks and balances; admires British constitution
a. "The Social Contract" - man must give up individual freedom for civic freedom of the masses
b. "Emile" - treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship
"A Vindication of the Rights of Women" - opposed women subordination
"Leviathan" - social contract theory; argued for absolute ruler; strong central government
a. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" - tabula rasa (people born as blank state); everything is based on experience
b. "Two Treatises on Civil Government" - attacks patriarchalism; based on natural rights