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Charles II (Spain)

The mentally and physically feeble monarch of Spain from 1665-1700. His death sparked the War of the Spanish Succession because most of Europe did not want the French Duke of Anjou to inherit the country.

Louis XV

Ruled 1715-1774. The great-grandson of Louis XIV who inherited the throne at age five. His regent was the king's nephew, the duke of Orleans. Ruled during a small time of French prosperity.

Cardinal Fleury

(1653-1743) Cardinal appointed by Louis XV's regent. He balanced the budget and carried out plans for road and canal construction. Colonial trade boomed and France accepted limits on territorial expansion.

Walpole

(1676-1745) George I and George III relied on him to help manage their relations with Parliament. Technically the first Prime Minister of the UK. He led the House of Commons and dispensed government jobs to win support for the Crown's policies. Helped develop a cabinet which the US and UK cabinets are based on today.

Peter the Great

Ruled 1689-1725. The tsar of Russian that is known for dragging Russian "kicking and screaming" into a westernized civilization. He transformed public life in Russia through dress, buildings, businesses, and knowledge and set up an absolutist government.

Prince Alexei

Son of Peter the Great. Opposed his father's transformation of Russia and was, therefore, throne into jail where he "mysteriously died."

Fredrick William I

King of Prussia from 1713-1740. Famous for his intensely trained and very large army. During his rule he nearly doubled it's size and pushed it to become the best trained force in Europe.

Jenner

An English Physician who, in 1796, created an inoculation against small pox. The serum was based on cow pox, a milder form of the disease.

Hanover Family

The German family who succeeded to the English throne after the death of William III. Changed their name to Windsor during WWI but still sits on the throne today.

Jacobitism

The support of many in Scottland and Ireland for the Stuart Family line. Rebelled for James II's son and grandson to be back on the British throne.

Holy Synod

The replacement Peter the Great created for the office of Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. It was a "bureaucracy of laymen under his supervision."

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)

The war that resulted from the heirless death of Charles II; in order to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns (Philip of Anjou was handpicked to be heir), the Grand Alliance declared war on France to stop a possible universal monarchy.

Peace of Utrecht (1714)

End of the War of the Spanish Succession. Phillip was recognized as King of Spain as long as he agreed to renounce any claim to the French throne. Spain lost territories in Italy, Netherlands, and Gibraltar, and France lost territories in North America. (They were gained by Austria and Britain.)

Act of Union (1707)

The act agreed to by Scottish Protestant leaders which abolished the Scottish Parliament, affirmed recognition of the Hanoverian succession, and said the Scots were to obey the British Parliament.

Great Northern War (1701-1721)

Russia (Peter the Great) attacked Sweden (Charles XII) with assistance from Poland and Denmark. After being destroyed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and crushes Sweden in the Battle of Poltava. Gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Balti with the Treay of Nystad.

War of the Polish Succession (1733-1735)

War fought when France and Russia want their guys on the Polish Throne. France/Spain vs Russia/Austria. Russian candidate, Augustus III, wins.

St. Petersburg

The new capitol of Russia built by and named after tsar Peter the Great. He hired skilled foreigners and forced over 40,000 workers a year to build it.

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